NATO INDEX of handbook uploaded March 25, 1993
Table OF CONTENTS paragraph What is NATO? 1 The Fundamental Tasks of the Alliance 2 Origins of the Alliance 3 NATO Today 4 PART I - HOW NATO WORKS Machinery of Cooperation 5 Fundamental Operating Principles 6 Joint Decision-Making 7 Political Consultation 8 Crisis Management 9 The Defence Dimension 10 Consultations on Nuclear Issues 11 Economic Cooperation 12 Public Information 13 The Common Infrastructure Programme 14 Logistic Support 15 Armaments Cooperation 16 Armaments Planning 17 Standardization 18 Communications and Information Systems 19 Air Defence 20 Civil Emergency Planning 21 Civil and Military Coordination of Air Traffic Management 22 Scientific Cooperation and Environmental Challenges 23 PART II - THE FUTURE ROLE OF THE ALLIANCE An Era of Political Change 24 The New Security Architecture 25 A Broad Approach to Security 26 The Alliance's Strategic Concept 27 Dialogue, Partnership and Cooperation 28 The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe 29 Europe's Security Identity and Defence Role 30 Arms Control 31 PART III - ORGANISATION AND STRUCTURES NATO Headquarters 32 Permanent Representatives and National Delegations 33 The International Staff 34 The Secretary General 35 Office of the Secretary General 36 Executive Secretariat 37 Office of Information and Press 38 NATO Office of Security 39 Division of Political Affairs 40 Political Affairs Directorate 41 Economics Directorate 42 Division of Defence Planning and Policy 43 Directorate of Force Planning and Policy 44 Nuclear Planning Directorate 45 Division of Defence Support 46 Directorate of Armaments and Defence Research 47 Directorate of Command Control and Communications 48 Directorate of Air Defence Systems 49 Directorate of Cooperation, Planning and Standardization 50 Division of Infrastructure, Logistics and Civil Emergency Planning 51 Infrastructure Directorate 52 Logistics Directorate 53 Civil Emergency Planning Directorate 54 Scientific Affairs Division 55 Office of Management 56 Office of the Financial Controller 57 Office of the Chairman of the Budget Committees 58 International Board of Auditors 59 Production and Logistics Organisations 60 National Military Representatives 61 The Military Committee 62 International Military Staff 63 Organisation of the International Military Staff 64 The Role of Allied Military Forces 65 The Integrated Military Command Structure 66 Allied Command Europe (ACE) 67 The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR) 68 Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) 69 The Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT) 70 Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN) 71 The Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) 72 Canada-United States Regional Planning Group 73 Forces Available to NATO 74 ACE Mobile Force (AMF) 75 Standing Naval Forces 76 Reserve Forces 77 Military Agencies and Organisations 78 Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) 79 Military Agency for Standardization (MAS) 80 NATO Electronic Warfare Advisory Committee (NEWAC) 81 EURO/NATO Training Group 82 Military Committee Meteorological Group (MCMG) 83 Military Telecommunications and CIS Agencies 84 SHAPE Technical Centre 85 SACLANT Undersea Research Centre 86 NATO Defense College 87 PART IV - INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) 88 The European Community (EC) 89 The Western European Union (WEU) 90 The Council of Europe 91 PART V - OTHER INTERGOVERNMENTAL AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS North Atlantic Assembly (NAA) 92 Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) 93 Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers (CIOR) 94 The Eurogroup 95 Independent European Programme Group (IEPG) 96 APPENDICES APPENDIX I THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY 97 APPENDIX II THE ALLIANCE'S STRATEGIC CONCEPT 98 APPENDIX III MEMBERS OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL 99 APPENDIX IV MEMBERS OF THE MILITARY COMMITTEE 100 APPENDIX V MAJOR NATO COMMANDERS 101 APPENDIX VI PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE INTERNATIONAL STAFF 102 APPENDIX VII PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE INTERNATIONAL MILITARY STAFF 103 APPENDIX VIII PRINCIPAL NATO AGENCIES 104 APPENDIX IX ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMON USE 105 APPENDIX X CHRONOLOGY 106
NATO handbook00 uploaded March 25, 1993
1. WHAT IS NATO? The North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949 brought into being an Alliance of independent countries with a common interest in maintaining peace and defending their freedom through political solidarity and adequate military defence to deter and, if necessary, repel all poss- ible forms of aggression against them. Created within the framework of Article 51 of the United Nations Charter, which reaffirms the inherent right of individual or collec- tive defence, the Alliance is an association of free states united in their determination to preserve their security through mutual guarantees and stable relations with other countries. NATO is the Organisation which serves the Alliance. It is an inter-governmental organisation in which member countries retain their full sovereignty and independence. The Organisation provides the forum in which they con- sult together on any issues they may choose to raise and take decisions on political and military matters affecting their security. It provides the structures needed to facili- tate consultation and cooperation between them, not only in political fields but also in many other areas where policies can be coordinated in order to fulfil the goals of the North Atlantic Treaty. NATO's essential purpose is thus to safeguard the free- dom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Based on common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the Alliance has worked since its inception for the establishment of a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe. This Alliance objective remains unchanged. NATO also embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America is permanently tied to the security of Europe. It is the practical expression of effective collective effort among its members in support of their common interests. The fundamental operating principle of the Alliance is that of common commitment and mutual cooperation among sovereign states based on the indivisibility of the security of its members. Solidarity within the Alliance, given substance and effect by NATO's daily work in politi- cal, military and other spheres, ensures that no member country is forced to rely upon its own national efforts alone in dealing with basic security challenges. Without depriving member states of their right and duty to assume their sovereign responsibilities in the field of defence, the Alliance enables them through collective effort to enhance their ability to realise their essential national security objectives. The resulting sense of equal security amongst the mem- bers of the Alliance, regardless of differences in their circumstances or in their national military capabilities, contributes to overall stability within Europe and thus to the creation of conditions conducive to increased cooper- ation both among Alliance members and with other coun- tries. It is on this basis that members of the Alliance, together with other states, are developing cooperative structures of security serving the interests of a Europe which is not subject to divisions and is free to pursue its political, economic, social and cultural destiny. 2. THE FUNDAMENTAL TASKS OF THE ALLIANCE The means by which the Alliance carries out its security policies include the maintenance of a military capability sufficient to prevent war and to provide for effective defence; an overall capability to manage successfully crises affecting the security of its members; and active political efforts favouring dialogue with other nations and a cooperative approach to European security, includ- ing measures to bring about further progress in the field of arms control and disarmament. To achieve its essential purpose, the Alliance performs the following fundamental security tasks: It provides one of the indispensable foundations for stable security in Europe based on the growth of demo- cratic institutions and commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes. It seeks to create an environment in which no country would be able to intimidate or coerce any European nation or to impose hegemony through the threat or use of force. In accordance with Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, it serves as a transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues affecting the vital interests of its members, including developments which might pose risks to their security. It facilitates appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern. It provides deterrence and defence against any form of aggression against the territory of any NATO member state. It preserves the strategic balance within Europe. The structures created within NATO enable member countries to coordinate their policies in order to fulfil these complementary tasks. They provide for continuous consultation and cooperation in political, economic and other non-military fields as well as the formulation of joint plans for the common defence; the establishment of the infrastructure needed to enable military forces to operate; and arrangements for joint training programmes and exercises. Underpinning these activities is a complex civilian and military structure involving administrative, budgetary and planning staffs, as well as agencies which have been established by the member countries of the Alliance in order to coordinate work in specialised fields - for example, the communications needed to facilitate political consultation and command and control of mili- tary forces and the logistics support needed to sustain military forces. The following sections describe the origins of the Alli- ance; the progress which has been made towards the realis- ation of its goals; the steps being undertaken to transform the Alliance in accordance with the dramatic changes which have taken place in the political and strategic environment; and the machinery of cooperation and struc- tural arrangements which enable NATO to fulfill its tasks. 3. ORIGINS OF THE ALLIANCE Between 1945 and 1949, faced with the pressing need for economic reconstruction, Western European countries and their North American allies viewed with concern the expansionist policies and methods of the USSR. Having fulfilled their own wartime undertakings to reduce their defence establishments and to demobilise forces, Western governments became increasingly alarmed as it became clear that the Soviet leadership intended to maintain its own military forces at full strength. Moreover, in view of the declared ideological aims of the Soviet Communist Party, it was evident that appeals for respect for the United Nations Charter, and for the international settle- ments reached at the end of the war, would not guarantee the national sovereignty or independence of democratic states faced with the threat of outside aggression or internal subversion. The imposition of undemocratic forms of government and the repression of effective oppo- sition and of basic human and civic rights and freedoms in many Central and Eastern European countries as well as elsewhere in the world, added to these fears. Between 1947 and 1949 a series of dramatic political events brought matters to a head. These included direct threats to the sovereignty of Norway, Greece, Turkey and other Western European countries, the June 1948 coup in Czechoslovakia and the illegal blockade of Berlin which began in April of the same year. The signature of the Brussels Treaty of March 1948 marked the determination of five Western European countries - Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Nether- lands and the United Kingdom - to develop a common defence system and to strengthen the ties between them in a manner which would enable them to resist the further use of such pressures. Negotiations with the United States and Canada then followed on the creation of a single North Atlantic Alliance based on security guarantees and mutual commitments between Europe and North America. Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Portugal were invited to become participants in this process. These negotiations culminated in the signature of the Treaty of Washington in April 1949, bringing into being a common security system based on a partnership among these twelve countries. In 1952 Greece and Turkey acceded to the Treaty. The Federal Republic of Germany joined the Alliance in 1955 and, in 1982, Spain also became a member of NATO. The North Atlantic Alliance was thus founded on the basis of a Treaty between member states entered into freely by each of them after public debate and due parlia- mentary process. The Treaty upholds their individual rights as well as their international obligations in accord- ance with the Charter of the United Nations. It commits each member country to sharing the risks and responsibili- ties as well as the benefits of collective security and requires of each of them the undertaking not to enter into any other international commitment which might conflict with the Treaty. 4. NATO TODAY The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, the unifica- tion of Germany in October 1990, the disintegration of the Soviet Union in December 1991, and dramatic changes elsewhere in Central and Eastern Europe, marked the end of the Cold War era. Since these events, which have transformed the political situation in Europe, the nature of the risks faced by the members of the Alliance has fundamentally changed. However, as events have proved, dangers to peace and threats to stability remain. Following the decisions taken by the NATO Heads of State and Government at their Summit Meetings in London in July 1990 and in Rome in November 1991, the North Atlantic Alliance has therefore been adapting its overall strategy in the light of the changing strategic and political environment. Attention has focussed in par- ticular on the need to reinforce the political role of the Alliance and the contribution it can make, in cooperation with other institutions, in providing the security and stability which are the prerequisite for the process of renewal in which Europe is engaged. The Strategic Concept adopted by Heads of State and Government in Rome outlines a broad approach to secu- rity based on dialogue, cooperation and the maintenance of a collective defence capability. It integrates political and military elements of NATO's security policy into a coherent whole, establishing cooperation with new part- ners in Central and Eastern Europe as an integral part of the Alliance's strategy. The Concept provides for reduced dependence on nuclear weapons and major changes in NATO's integrated military forces, including substantial reductions in their size and readiness, improvements in their mobility, flexibility and adaptability to different contingencies and greater use of multinational form- ations. Measures are also being taken to streamline NATO's military command structure and to adapt the Alliance's defence planning arrangements and procedures in the light of the changed circumstances concerning security in Europe as a whole. At the Rome Summit Meeting, NATO Heads of State and Government also issued an important Declaration on Peace and Cooperation. The Declaration set out the context for the Alliance's Strategic Concept. It defined the future tasks and policies of NATO in relation to the overall institutional framework for Europe's future secu- rity and in relation to the evolving partnership and cooper- ation with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It reaffirmed the Alliance's commitment to strengthening the role of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, making specific suggestions for achieving this, and reaffirmed the consensus among the member coun- tries of the Alliance on the development of a European security identity and defence role. It underlined the Alli- ance's support for the steps being taken in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe towards reform; offered practical assistance to help them to succeed in this diffi- cult transition; invited them to participate in appropriate Alliance forums; and extended to them the Alliance's experience and expertise in political, military, economic and scientific consultation and cooperation. A particularly significant step taken in this context was the establishment of a North Atlantic Cooperation Coun- cil (NACC) to oversee the future development of this partnership. Subsequent consultations and cooperation have been wide-ranging but have focussed in particular on political and security-related matters; conceptual ap- proaches to arms control and disarmament; defence plan- ning issues and military matters; democratic concepts of civilian-military relations; the conversion of defence pro- duction to civilian purposes; economic issues, defence expenditure and budgets; scientific cooperation and defence-related environmental issues; dissemination of in- formation about NATO in the countries of cooperation partners; policy planning consultations; and civil/military air traffic management. The Rome Declaration also examined the progress achieved and specific opportunities available in the field of arms control and underlined the Alliance's adherence to a global view of security taking into account broader challenges which can affect security interests. Since the publication of the Rome Declaration, addi- tional measures have been taken at Ministerial Meetings of Foreign and Defence Ministers held in December 1991 and at subsequent meetings, to further the process of adaptation and transformation on which the Alliance has embarked. The inaugural meeting of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council took place on 20 December 1991 with the participation of the Foreign Ministers or repre- sentatives of NATO countries and of six Central and Eastern European countries as well as the three Baltic states. The role of the NACC is to facilitate cooperation on security and related issues between the participating coun- tries at all levels and to oversee the process of developing closer institutional ties as well as informal links between them. The eleven states on the territory of the former Soviet Union which now constitute the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) became participants in this process in March 1992. Georgia and Albania joined the process in April and June 1992 respectively. NATO is also playing a role in the coordination of humanitarian aid to these new states and is making available its unique expert- ise and capabilities for this purpose. NATO Defence Ministers met with cooperation part- ners on 1 April 1992 to consider ways of deepening dialogue and promoting cooperation between them on issues falling within their competence. The Military Com- mittee held its first meeting in cooperation session on 10 April 1992. These meetings advanced the process of co- operation by offering practical advice and assistance and preparing an initial cooperation programme on defence- related matters. In parallel, contacts and cooperation are being developed between Ministries of Defence and at the military level. A Group on Defence Matters has been set up to act as a clearing house for requests for defence- related assistance from cooperation partners. Dialogue, partnership and cooperation are described in more detail in Part II. Against the background of the crisis in the former Yugoslavia and the violence taking place in Nagorno- Karabakh, Armenia and Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and elsewhere, attention has also been directed increas- ingly towards possible NATO support for CSCE peace- keeping activities and its contributions to UN, CSCE and EC efforts with regard to Yugoslavia in particular. At the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Oslo in June 1992 agreement was reached on providing conditional support for CSCE peace-keeping activities on a case-by- case basis, including making available Alliance resources and expertise. In July a NATO maritime operation was mounted in the Adriatic, in coordination and cooperation with operations undertaken by the WEU, to monitor com- pliance with UN Security Council Resolutions imposing sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro. Following the London Conference on Yugoslavia at the end of August, deliberations in the Alliance focussed on the protection of humanitarian relief and support for UN monitoring of heavy weapons. Decisions were taken to make Alliance support available for these two tasks and to continue contingency planning on other options.
NATO handbook01 uploaded March 25, 1993
PART I HOW NATO WORKS 5. MACHINERY OF COOPERATION The basic machinery of Alliance cooperation is as fol- lows: (a) The North Atlantic Council has effective political authority and powers of decision and consists of Permanent Representatives of all member countries meet- ing together at least once a week. The Council also meets at higher levels involving Foreign Ministers or Heads of Government but it has the same authority and powers of decision-making, and its decisions have the same status and validity, at whatever level it meets. The Council has an important public profile and issues declarations and communiques explaining its policies and decisions to the general public and to governments of countries which are not members of the Alliance. The Council is the only body within the Alliance which derives its authority explicitly from the North Atlantic Treaty. The Council itself was given responsibility under the Treaty for setting up subsidiary bodies. A large number of committees and planning groups have since been created to support the work of the Council or to assume responsibility in specific fields such as defence planning, nuclear planning and military matters. The Council thus provides a unique forum for wide- ranging consultation between member governments on all issues affecting their security and is the most important decision-making body in NATO. All sixteen member coun- tries of NATO have an equal right to express their views round the Council table. Decisions are the expression of the collective will of member governments arrived at by common consent. All member governments are party to the policies formulated and to the consensus on which decisions are based. Each government is represented on the Council by a Permanent Representative with ambassadorial rank. Each Permanent Representative is supported by a political and military staff or delegation to NATO, varying in size. Twice each year, and sometimes more frequently, the Council meets at Ministerial level, when each nation is represented by its Minister of Foreign Affairs. Summit Meetings, attended by Heads of State or Government, are held whenever particularly important issues confront- ing the whole Alliance have to be addressed. While the permanent Council normally meets at least once a week, it can be convened at short notice whenever necessary. All its meetings are chaired by the Secretary General of NATO or his Deputy. At Ministerial Meetings, one of the Foreign Ministers assumes the role of Honorary President. The position rotates annually among the nations, in the order of the English alphabet. Items discussed and decisions taken at meetings of the Council cover all aspects of the Organisation's activities and are frequently based on reports and recommend- ations prepared by subordinate committees at the Coun- cil's request. Equally, subjects may be raised by any one of the national representatives or by the Secretary General. Permanent Representatives act on instructions from their capitals, informing and explaining the views and policy decisions of their governments to their col- leagues round the table. Conversely they report back to their national authorities on the views expressed and positions taken by other governments, informing them of new developments and keeping them abreast of move- ment towards consensus on important issues or areas where national positions diverge. When decisions have to be made, action is agreed upon on the basis of unanimity and common accord. There is no voting or decision by majority. Each nation repre- sented at the Council table or on any of its subordinate committees retains complete sovereignty and responsibility for its own decisions. (b) The Defence Planning Committee is normally com- posed of Permanent Representatives but meets at the level of Defence Ministers at least twice a year, and deals with most defence matters and subjects related to collective defence planning. With the exception of France, all member countries are represented in this forum. The Defence Planning Committee provides guidance to NATO's military authorities and within the area of its responsibilities, has the same functions and attributes and the same authority as the Council. (c) The Nuclear Planning Group meets at the same level and with the same status as the Defence Planning Committee. This is the principal forum for consultation on all matters relating to the role of nuclear forces in NATO's security policy. The Nuclear Planning Group fol- lows a similar pattern of meetings at ambassadorial level and at the level of Ministers of Defence and has the same functions and authority for decisions on nuclear matters as the Council and Defence Planning Committee have in their own spheres. All member countries except France participate. Iceland participates as an observer. (d) The Secretary General is a senior international statesman nominated by the member nations both as Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, Defence Plan- ning Committee, Nuclear Planning Group and of other senior committees, and as Secretary General of NATO. He also acts as principal spokesman of the Organis- ation, both in its external relations and in communi- cations and contacts between member governments. The role of the Secretary General is described in more detail in Part III. (e) The International Staff is drawn from the member countries, serves the Council and the many Committees and Working Groups subordinate to it and works on a continuous basis on a wide variety of issues relevant to the Alliance. In addition there are a number of civil agencies and organisations located in different member countries, working in specific fields such as communica- tions and logistic support. The organisation and struc- tures of the International Staff and the principal civil agencies established by NATO to perform specific tasks are described in Part III. (f) The Military Committee is responsible for recom- mending to NATO's political authorities those measures considered necessary for the common defence of the NATO area and for providing guidance on military matters to the Major NATO Commanders, whose functions are described in Part III. At meetings of the North Atlantic Council, Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Plan- ning Group, the Military Committee is represented by its Chairman or his Deputy. The Military Committee is the highest military auth- ority in the Alliance under the political authority of the North Atlantic Council and Defence Planning Commit- tee, or, where nuclear matters are concerned, the Nuclear Planning Group. It is composed of the Chiefs-of-Staff of each member country except France, which is represented by a military mission to the Military Committee. Iceland has no military forces but may be represented by a civilian. The Chiefs-of-Staff meet at least twice a year. At other times member countries are represented by national Military Representatives appointed by the Chiefs-of- Staff. The Presidency of the Military Committee rotates annu- ally among the nations in the order of the English alpha- bet. The Chairman of the Military Committee represents the committee in other forums and is its spokesman, as well as directing its day-to-day activities. (g) The integrated military structure remains under political control and guidance at the highest level. The role of the integrated military structure is to provide the organisational framework for defending the territory of the member countries against threats to their security or stability. It includes a network of major and subordinate military commands covering the whole of the North Atlantic area. It provides the basis for the joint exercising of military forces and collaboration in fields such as communications and information systems, air defence, logistic support for military forces and the standard- ization or interoperability of procedures and equipment. The role of the Alliance's integrated military forces is to guarantee the security and territorial integrity of member states, contribute to the maintenance of stability and balance in Europe and to crisis management, and, ultimately, to provide the defence of the strategic area covered by the NATO Treaty. The integrated military structure is being adapted to take account of the changed strategic environment. It is described in more detail in Part III. (h) The International Military Staff supports the work of NATO's Military Committee. There are also a number of Military Agencies which oversee specific aspects of the work of the Military Committee. The organisation and structure of the International Military Staff and Military Agencies are described in Part III. The structure provided by these various components of the Organisation is underpinned by procedures for politi- cal and other forms of consultation and by a system of common civil and military funding provided by member nations on a cost-sharing basis. The principle of common- funding applies equally to the provision of the basic facilities needed by the defence forces of member coun- tries in order to fulfill their NATO commitments; and to the budgetary requirements of the political headquarters of the Alliance in Brussels and of NATO civil and military agencies elsewhere. It is extended to every aspect of cooperation within NATO. The management of these financial resources is under- taken through separate civil and military budgets estab- lished on the basis of agreed cost-sharing formulae and a self-critical screening process. This embodies the principles of openness, flexibility and fairness and ensures that maximum benefit is obtained both for the Organisation as a whole and for its individual members by seeking cost-effective solutions to common problems. Political control and mutual accountability, including the accept- ance by each member country of a rigorous, multilateral, budgetary screening process, are fundamental elements. Fair competition among national suppliers of equipment and services for contracts relating to common-funded activities is an important feature of the system. In addition to the above elements, which constitute the practical basis for cooperation and consultation among the sixteen members of the North Atlantic Alliance, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council or ``NACC'', was established in December 1991 to oversee the further development of the dialogue, cooperation and consult- ation between NATO and its cooperation partners in Central and Eastern Europe and on the territory of the former Soviet Union. The development and role of the NACC is described in Part II. When it met in March 1992, the NACC published a Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooperation, setting out the basis for initial steps to develop the relationship between the participating countries and detail- ing the principal topics and activities on which the NACC has agreed to concentrate for the time being. In addition to meetings of the NACC itself, meetings with representatives of cooperation countries also take place on a regular basis under the auspices of the North Atlantic Council in permanent session and of its subordi- nate NATO bodies. While the North Atlantic Council derives its authority from the contractual relationship between NATO member countries established on the basis of the North Atlantic Treaty, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council is the forum created for consultation and cooperation on politi- cal and security issues between NATO and its cooperation partners, proposed in the Rome Declaration of November 1991. 6. FUNDAMENTAL OPERATING PRINCIPLES The fundamental operating principles of the Alliance involve both a common political commitment and a commitment to practical cooperation among sovereign states. The member countries consider their joint security to be indivisible. No individual member country therefore has to rely on its own national efforts and economic resources alone to deal with basic security challenges. However, no nation surrenders the right to fulfil its national obligations towards its people and each continues to assume sovereign responsibility for its own defence. The Alliance enables member countries to enhance their ability to realise essential national security objectives through collective effort. The resulting sense of equal security amongst them, regardless of differences in their circumstances or in their relative national military capabilities, contributes to their overall stability. 7. JOINT DECISION-MAKING In making their joint decision-making process dependent on consensus and common consent, the members of the Alliance safeguard the role of each country's individual experience and outlook while at the same time availing themselves of the machinery and procedures which allow them jointly to act rapidly and decisively if circumstances require them to do so. The practice of exchanging inform- ation and consulting together on a daily basis ensures that governments can come together at short notice whenever necessary, often with prior knowledge of their respective preoccupations, in order to agree on common policies. If need be, efforts to reconcile differences between them will be made in order that joint actions may be backed by the full force of decisions to which all the member govern- ments subscribe. Once taken, such decisions represent the common determination of all the countries involved to implement them in full. Decisions which may be politic- ally difficult or which face competing demands on re- sources thus acquire added force and credibility. All member countries participate fully at the political level of cooperation within the Alliance and are equally committed to the terms of the North Atlantic Treaty, not least to the reciprocal undertaking made in Article 5 which symbolises the indivisibility of their security - namely to consider an attack against one or more of them as an attack upon them all. The manner in which the Alliance has evolved neverthe- less ensures that variations in the requirements and poli- cies of member countries can be taken into account in their positions within the Alliance. This flexibility mani- fests itself in a number of different ways. In some cases differences may be largely procedural and are accommo- dated without difficulty. Iceland for example, has no military forces and is therefore represented in NATO military forums by a civilian if it so wishes. In other cases the distinctions may be of a substantive nature. France, which remains a full member of the North Atlantic Alliance and of its political structures, withdrew from the Alliance's integrated military structure in 1966. It does not participate in NATO's Defence Planning Committee, Nuclear Planning Group or Military Committee. Regular contacts with NATO's military structure take place through a French Military Mission to the Military Committee and France participates in a number of practical areas of cooperation in the communications, armaments, logistics and infrastructure spheres. Spain, which joined the Alliance in 1982, participates in NATO's Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group as well as in its Military Committee. In accordance with the terms of a national referendum held in 1984, Spain does not take part in NATO's integrated military structure but does participate in collective de- fence planning. Military coordination agreements enable Spanish forces to cooperate with other allied forces in specific roles and missions and to contribute to allied collective security as a whole while remaining outside the integrated military structure. Other distinctions may also exist as a result of the geographical, political, military or constitutional situa- tions of member countries. The participation of Norway and Denmark in NATO's military dispositions, for exam- ple, must comply with national legislation which does not allow nuclear weapons or foreign forces to be stationed on their national territory in peace-time. In another con- text, military arrangements organised on a regional basis may involve only the forces of those countries directly concerned or equipped to participate in the specific area in which the activity takes place. This applies, for exam- ple, to the forces contributed by nations to the ACE Mobile Force and to the standing naval forces described in Part III. 8. POLITICAL CONSULTATION Policy formulation and implementation in an Alliance of sixteen independent sovereign countries depends on all member governments being fully informed of each other's overall policies and intentions and of the underlying considerations which give rise to them. This calls for regular political consultation, wherever possible during the policy-making stage of deliberations before national decisions have been taken. Political consultation in NATO began as a systematic exercise when the Council first met in September 1949, shortly after the North Atlantic Treaty came into force. Since that time it has been strengthened and adapted to suit new developments. The principal forum for political consultation remains the Council. Its meetings take place with a minimum of formality and discussion is frank and direct. The Secretary General, by virtue of his Chairman- ship, plays an essential part in its deliberations and acts as its principal representative and spokesman both in contacts with individual governments and in public affairs. Consultation also takes place on a regular basis in other forums, all of which derive their authority from the Council: the Political Committee at senior and other levels, Regional Expert Groups, Ad Hoc Political Work- ing Groups, an Atlantic Policy Advisory Group and other special committees all have a direct role to play in facilitating political consultation between member govern- ments. Like the Council, they are assisted by an Inter- national Staff responsible to the Secretary General of NATO and an International Military Staff responsible to its Director, and through him, responsible for supporting the activities of the Military Committee. Political consultation is not limited to events taking place within the NATO Treaty area. Events outside the geographical area covered by the Treaty may have implica- tions for the Alliance and consultations on such events therefore take place as a matter of course. The consult- ative machinery of NATO is readily available and exten- sively used by the member nations in such circumstances. In such situations, NATO as an Alliance may not be directly involved. However the long practice of consulting together and developing collective responses to political events affecting their common interests enables member countries to draw upon common procedures, cooperative arrangements for defence and shared infrastructure, if they need to do so. By consulting together they are able to identify at an early stage areas where, in the interests of security and stability, coordinated action may be taken. The need for consultation is not limited to political subjects. Wide-ranging consultation takes place in many other fields. The process is continuous and takes place on an informal as well as a formal basis with a minimum of delay or inconvenience, as a result of the collocation of national delegations to NATO within the same head- quarters. Where necessary, it enables intensive work to be carried out at short notice on matters of particular import- ance or urgency with the full participation of represent- atives from all member governments concerned. Consultation within the Alliance takes many forms. At its most basic level it involves simply the exchange of information and opinions. At another level it covers the communication of actions or decisions which govern- ments have already taken or may be about to take and which have a direct or indirect bearing on the interests of their allies. It may also involve providing advance warn- ing of actions or decisions to be taken by governments in the future, in order to provide an opportunity for them to be endorsed or commented upon by others. It can encompass discussion with the aim of reaching a consensus on policies to be adopted or actions to be taken in parallel. And ultimately it is designed to enable member countries to arrive at mutually acceptable agreements on collective decisions or on action by the Alliance as a whole. 9. CRISIS MANAGEMENT Consultation naturally takes on particular significance in times of tension and crisis. In such circumstances, rapid decision-making based on consensus on measures to be taken in the political, military and civil emergency fields depends on immediate and continuous consultation between member governments. The principal forums for the intensive consultation required are the Council and the Defence Planning Com- mittee, supported by the Military Committee, the Political Committee and other civilian committees as may be needed. The practices and procedures involved form the Alliance crisis management arrangements. Facilities including communications in support of the process are provided by a NATO Situation Centre, which operates on a permanent 24-hour basis. Exercises to test and develop crisis management procedures are held at regular intervals in conjunction with national capitals and Major NATO Commanders. Crisis management arrangements, procedures and facilities as well as the preparation and conduct of crisis management exercises are coordinated by the Council Operations and Exercise Committee. 10. THE DEFENCE DIMENSION The framework for NATO's defence planning process is provided by the underlying principles which are the basis for collective security as a whole - political solidarity among member countries; the promotion of collaboration and strong ties between them in all fields where this serves their common and individual interests; the sharing of roles and responsibilities and recognition of mutual commitments; and a joint undertaking to maintain adequate military forces to support Alliance strategy. In the new political and strategic environment in Europe, the success of the Alliance's role in preserving peace and preventing war depends even more than in the past on the effectiveness of preventive diplomacy and successful management of crises affecting security. The political, economic, social and environmental elements of security and stability are thus becoming increasingly important. Nonetheless, the defence dimension remains indispensable. The role of the military forces of the Alliance is described in more detail in Part III. It includes contributing to the maintenance of stability and balance in Europe as well as to crisis management. The maintenance of an adequate military capability and clear preparedness to act collectively in the common defence therefore remain central to the Alliance's security objectives. Ultimately this capability, combined with political solidarity, is designed to prevent any attempt at coercion or intimi- dation, and to guarantee that military aggression directed against the Alliance can never be perceived as an option with any prospect of success, thus guaranteeing the security and territorial integrity of member states. In determining the size and nature of their contribution to collective defence, member countries of NATO retain full sovereignty and independence of action. Nevertheless, the nature of NATO's defence structure requires that in reaching their individual decisions, member countries take into account the overall needs of the Alliance. They therefore follow agreed defence planning procedures which provide the methodology and machinery for deter- mining the forces required to implement Alliance policies, for coordinating national defence plans and for establish- ing force planning goals which are in the interests of the Alliance as a whole. The planning process takes many quantitative and qualitative factors into account, includ- ing changing political circumstances, assessments pro- vided by NATO's Military Commanders of the forces they require to fulfill their tasks, scientific advances, technol- ogical developments, the importance of an equitable divi- sion of roles, risks and responsibilities within the Alliance, and the individual economic and financial capabilities of member countries. The process thus ensures that all relevant considerations are jointly examined to enable the best use to be made of the national resources which are available for defence. Close coordination between international civil and mili- tary staffs, NATO's military authorities, and NATO governments is maintained through an annual exchange of information on national plans. This exchange of inform- ation enables each nation's intentions to be compared with NATO's overall requirements and, if necessary, recon- sidered in the light of new Ministerial political directives, modernisation requirements and changes in the roles and responsibilities of the forces themselves. All these aspects are kept under continuous review and are scrutinised at each stage of the defence planning cycle. The starting point for defence planning is an agreed Strategic Concept or ``strategy'' which sets out in broad terms Alliance objectives and the means for achieving them. More detailed guidance is given every two years by Defence Ministers. Specific planning targets for the armed forces of member nations are developed on the basis of this guidance. These targets, known as ``Force Goals'', generally cover a six-year period, but in certain cases look further into the future. Like the guidance provided by Defence Ministers, they are updated every two years. The above steps culminate in the compilation of a common NATO Force Plan which provides the basis for NATO defence planning over a five-year time frame. In addition, allied defence planning is reviewed annually and given direction by Ministers of Defence. This annual defence review is designed to assess the contribution of member countries to the common defence in relation to their respective capabilities and constraints and against the Force Goals addressed to them.
NATO handbook02 uploaded March 25, 1993
11. CONSULTATIONS ON NUCLEAR ISSUES The fundamental purpose of the nuclear forces of the Allies is political: to preserve peace and prevent coercion and any kind of war. They continue to fulfil an essential role by ensuring uncertainty in the mind of any potential aggressor about the nature of the Allies' response to military aggression. They demonstrate that aggression of any kind is not a rational option. The supreme guarantee of the security of the Allies is provided by the strategic nuclear forces of the Alliance, particularly those of the United States; the independent nuclear forces of the United Kingdom and France, which have a deterrent role of their own, contribute to the overall deterrence and security of the Allies. A credible Alliance nuclear posture and the demonstra- tion of Alliance solidarity and common commitment to war prevention require widespread participation by the European Allies involved in collective defence planning, in nuclear roles, in peacetime basing of nuclear forces on their territory and in command, control and consultation arrangements. Nuclear forces based in Europe and com- mitted to NATO provide an essential political and military link between the European and the North American members of the Alliance. The Defence Ministers of member countries which take part in NATO's Defence Planning Committee come together at regular intervals each year in the Nuclear Plan- ning Group which meets specifically to discuss policy issues associated with nuclear forces. These discussions cover policy and deployment issues, reductions in force levels, nuclear arms control and wider questions of common concern such as nuclear proliferation. The Alli- ance's nuclear policy is kept under continuous review and decisions are taken jointly to modify or adapt it in the light of developments - for example, the decisions taken in 1991 to eliminate whole categories of nuclear forces no longer considered to be necessary and to make major reductions in nuclear weapons in other categories. While the issues involved in the formulation and implementaton of NATO's policy with regard to nuclear forces are discussed in the Nuclear Planning Group, in the present circumstances the likelihood of the Alliance being forced to contemplate the employment of nuclear weapons for its defence is extremely remote. However, in such circumstances, the ultimate decision on employ- ment would lie with the nuclear powers owning the weapons. 12. ECONOMIC COOPERATION The basis for economic cooperation within the Alliance stems from Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty which states that the member countries ``will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them''. NATO's Economics Committee, which was estab- lished to promote cooperation in this field, is the only Alliance forum concerned exclusively with consultations on economic developments with a direct bearing on secu- rity policy. Analyses and joint assessments of security- related economic developments are key ingredients in the coordination of defence planning within the Alliance. They cover matters such as comparisons of military spend- ing, developments within the defence industry, the avail- ability of resources for the implementation of defence plans, intra-Alliance trade in defence equipment and economic cooperation and assistance between member countries. The premise on which economic cooperation within the Alliance is founded is that political cooperation and economic conflict are irreconcilable and that there must therefore be a genuine desire among the members to work together in the economic as well as in the political field and a readiness to consult on questions of common concern based on the recognition of common interests. The member countries recognise that in many respects the purposes and principles of Article 2 of the Treaty are pursued and implemented by other organisations and international forums specifically concerned with econ- omic cooperation. NATO therefore avoids unnecessary du- plication of work carried out elsewhere but reinforces collaboration between its members whenever economic issues of special interest to the Alliance are involved, particularly those which have political or defence implica- tions. The Alliance therefore acts as a forum in which different and inter-related aspects of political, military and economic questions can be examined. It also provides the means whereby specific action in the economic field can be initiated to safeguard common Alliance interests. Recognising that Alliance security depends on the econ- omic stability and well-being of all its members as well as on political cohesion and military cooperation, studies were therefore initiated in the 1970's, for example, on the specific economic problems of Greece, Portugal and Turkey. These resulted in special action by NATO govern- ments to assist the less prosperous members of the Alli- ance by means of major aid programmes implemented largely through other organisations such as the Organisa- tion for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The special economic problems and prospects of these countries continue to be closely monitored. In the context of the Alliance's overall security inter- ests, a wide range of other economic issues may have a bearing on collective security. This includes matters such as the conversion of defence production to civilian pur- poses, defence expenditures/budgets, industrial perform- ance, consumer and agriculture problems, population movements and external economic relations - particularly with respect to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the independent states on the territory of the former Soviet Union. Analyses and joint studies of issues such as these have contributed for many years to NATO's assessment of the security environment affecting its coordi- nated defence plans. Increasingly they form part of the wider approach to security issues adopted by the Alliance as a result of the fundamental changes which have taken place in Europe. As one of the areas for increased cooper- ation between the members of the Alliance and their cooper- ation partners foreseen in the Declaration issued by NATO Heads of State and Government in Rome in November 1991, economic topics can be expected to be the subject of broader exchanges of information and assessments in the future. In accordance with the Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooperation issued in March 1992, joint work with NATO's cooperation partners is taking place, for example, on defence conver- sion and the inter-relationship of defence expenditure and budgets with the economy. Cooperation partners were also represented in NATO's 1992 Economics Collo- quium and Defence Economics Workshop. 13. PUBLIC INFORMATION Public recognition of the achievements of the Alliance and of its continuing role in the post-Cold War era is fundamental to the continued success of the Alliance and its ability to carry out its basic tasks, while expanding and deepening its relations with former adversaries with whom it has now established a new partnership based on cooperation, dialogue and common security interests. The responsibility for explaining national defence and security policy and each member country's own role within the Alliance rests with each individual government. The choice of the methods to be adopted and the resources to be devoted to the task of informing their publics about the policies and objectives of the Alliance is also a matter for each member nation to decide. The role of NATO's Office of Information and Press is therefore to complement the public information activities undertaken within each country, providing whatever as- sistance may be required, and to manage the Organisa- tion's day-to-day relations with the media. In accordance with the Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Co- operation issued in March 1992, it is also contributing to the widespread dissemination of information about NATO in the countries participating in the North Atlantic Co- operation Council. To meet these requirements the Office of Information and Press produces information materials such as period- ical and non-periodical publications, videos, photographs and exhibitions. It also administers a major programme of visits which brings over 20,000 people to NATO Head- quarters each year, for briefings by and discussions with experts from the International Staff, International Mili- tary Staff and national Delegations, on all aspects of the Alliance's work and policies. Conferences and seminars on security-related themes are also organised both at NATO and elsewhere, often involving security specialists, parliamentarians, journalists, church leaders, trade union- ists, academics, students or youth organisations. The NATO Office of Information and Press also spon- sors two types of Research Fellowship Programmes; the first, which has existed since 1956, awards grants to post- graduates and other qualified citizens of member coun- tries to stimulate study and research into subjects of relevance to the Alliance; the second, introduced in 1989, makes awards to citizens of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe for the study of Western democratic institutions. An annual Atlantic Award is also organised for outstanding service to the Alliance by private citizens from member countries. This award is presented by the Secretary General on the recommendation of an inde- pendent jury. The role of managing day-to-day relations with the media is covered by the Press and Media Service, which is responsible for channelling official policy statements and announcements to journalists, arranging interviews with the Secretary General and other senior officials of the Organisation and dealing with enquiries and visits from the media. The Work Plan for developing the dialogue, partner- ship and cooperation in the information field with Central and Eastern European countries and other members of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, includes joint meetings, dissemination of information through diplo- matic liaison channels and NATO embassies, group visits to NATO, sponsorship of seminar participation in Allied countries, co-sponsorship of seminars in Central and Eastern Europe, speakers' tours, a limited expansion of the Democratic Institutions Fellowships Programme, special publications and wider dissemination of NATO documentation. There are a number of non-governmental organisations which support NATO and play an important role, often in an educational capacity, in disseminating information about Alliance goals and policies. The NATO Office of Information and Press assists them in this work. These organisations include national Atlantic Committees or Associations in each member country, as well as a number of other bodies such as the North Atlantic Assembly, which brings together Parliamentarians from member countries, and the Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers, in which twelve member countries are repre- sented. Further information about these organisations is given in Part V. 14. THE COMMON INFRASTRUCTURE PROGRAMME Installations of many different kinds are needed to enable military forces to train effectively and to be ready to operate efficiently if called upon to do so. The NATO Common Infrastructure Programme enables the installa- tions and facilities required by the Major NATO Com- manders for the training and operational use of the forces assigned to them to be financed collectively by the partici- pating countries. Such funding takes place within agreed limits and in accordance with agreed NATO procedures on the basis of cost-sharing arrangements developed to dis- tribute the burden and benefits as equitably as possible. The programme provides for installations and facilities such as airfields, communications and information sys- tems, military headquarters, fuel pipelines and storage, radar and navigational aids, port installations, missile sites, forward storage and support facilities for reinforce- ment, etc. Infrastructure used only by national forces, or portions of installations which do not come within the criteria for NATO common-funding, are financed by the governments concerned. Contracts for installations desig- nated as NATO Infrastructure are normally subject to international competitive bidding procedures on the basis of cost estimates, screened by the NATO Infrastructure Payments and Progress Committee, to ensure compliance with agreed specifications as well as maximum efficiency and economy. Aspects of such contracts which can best be undertaken locally are usually exempt from this pro- cedure and are subject to national competitive bidding, but the principle is maintained and exemption has to be approved. Completed projects are subject to inspection by teams consisting of experts from the country on whose territory the installation is located, user countries, and NATO International Staff and Military Authorities. The programme is continuously monitored by the NATO Infrastructure Committees and all financial operations are audited by the NATO International Board of Audi- tors under the authority of the North Atlantic Council. The Infrastructure Programme is being adapted to meet the requirements of the Alliance's new Strategic Concept published in November 1991. 15. LOGISTIC SUPPORT There are many spheres of civilian and military activity which have a direct or indirect bearing on the common security of the member countries of the Alliance. The assistance available to defence forces to enable them to fulfil their roles includes, for example, providing shared access to the logistic support which they need if they are to function effectively. Each member country is respons- ible for ensuring, individually or through cooperative arrangements, the continuous support of its own forces. Coordinated logistics planning is therefore an essential aspect of the efficient and economical use of resources. Examples of cooperative arrangements include the common funding of logistics facilities under the NATO Infrastructure Programme, the coordination of civil logistics resources under Civil Emergency Planning arrangements and logistics aspects of armaments produc- tion and procurement. It is through such arrangements that the availability of the necessary installations, storage and maintenance facilities, transport resources, vehicles, weapons, ammunition, fuel supplies, and stocks of spare parts can be coordinated. Cooperation in these fields is coordinated through the Senior NATO Logisticians' Conference. A number of pro- duction and logistics organisations have also been estab- lished to manage specific aspects of the support needed by NATO forces on a permanent basis, including the Central Europe Operating Agency responsible for the operation and maintenance of the Central Europe Pipe- line System; and the NATO Maintenance and Supply Organisation which assists member countries primarily through the common procurement and supply of spare parts and the provision of maintenance and repair facili- ties. 16. ARMAMENTS COOPERATION Responsibility for equipping and maintaining military forces rests with the member nations of NATO and in most spheres research, development and production of equip- ment are organised by each country in accordance with its national requirements and its commitments to NATO. Since the establishment of the Alliance, however, exten- sive coordination and cooperation in the field of arma- ments has taken place within NATO. Armaments cooper- ation remains an important means of achieving the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective de- fence. NATO armaments cooperation is organised under a Con- ference of National Armaments Directors which meets on a regular basis to consider political, economic and technical aspects of the development and procurement of equipment for NATO forces. Army, navy and air force armaments groups, a defence research group and a tri- service group on communications and electronics, support the work of the Conference and are responsible to it in their respective fields. Assistance on industrial matters is provided by a NATO Industrial Advisory Group which enables the Conference of National Armaments Directors to benefit from industry's advice on how to foster government-to-industry and industry-to-industry cooper- ation and assists the Conference in exploring opportuni- ties for international collaboration. Other groups under the Conference are active in fields such as defence procure- ment policy and acquisition practices, codification, qual- ity assurance, test and safety criteria, and materiel stand- ardization. Within the above structure project groups, panels, work- ing and ad hoc groups are established to promote cooper- ation in specific fields. The overall structure enables member countries to select the equipment and research projects in which they wish to participate and facilitates exchange of information on operational concepts, na- tional equipment programmes and technical and logistics matters where cooperation can be of benefit to individual nations and to NATO as a whole. 17. ARMAMENTS PLANNING In order to give NATO armaments cooperation a new impulse, in 1989 the North Atlantic Council approved the establishment of a Conventional Armaments Planning System (CAPS). The aims of this system are to provide guidance to the CNAD and orientation to the nations on how the military requirements of the Alliance can best be met by armaments programmes, individually and collec- tively; to harmonise longer-term defence procurement plans; and to identify future opportunities for armaments cooperation on an Alliance-wide basis. The outcome of this planning process is a series of recommendations issued every two years. These recommendations, which are set out in the form of an armaments plan, are designed to eliminate unnecessary duplication of effort, to provide a framework for the exchange of information, and to establish more rational and cost-effective methods of armaments procurement. NATO's first Conventional Ar- maments Plan was adopted in December 1991. 18. STANDARDIZATION Standardization and interoperability between NATO forces make a vital contribution to the combined operational effectiveness of the military forces of the Alliance and enable opportunities to be exploited for making better use of economic resources. Extensive efforts are therefore made in many different spheres to improve cooperation and eliminate duplication in research, development, pro- duction, procurement and support of defence systems. NATO Standardization Agreements for procedures and systems and equipment components, known as STANAGS, are developed and promulgated by a NATO Military Agency for Standardization in conjunction with the Conference of National Armaments Directors and other authorities concerned. By formulating, agreeing, implementing and maintain- ing standards for equipment and procedures used through- out NATO, a significant contribution is made to the co- hesion of the Alliance and the effectiveness of its defence structure. While standardization is of relevance in many different areas, the principal forum for standardization policy issues is the NATO Standardization Group, which acts as a coordinator for the various endeavours and aims to incorporate standardization as an integral part of Alliance planning.
NATO Handbook03 uploaded March 25, 1993
19. COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS Rapid and reliable communications and information sys- tems are required by national and NATO political and military authorities for political consultation, crisis manage- ment and for the command and control of assigned forces. Modern technology and the integration of strat- egic and tactical communications and information systems into an overall NATO Communications and Information System (CIS) has enabled these requirements to be met. The rudimentary communications links available in the early days of the Alliance were expanded in the late 1960s to provide direct communications between capitals, NATO Headquarters and Major NATO Commands. When NATO moved to Brussels in 1967 a modern Com- munications system was established as part of a range of improvements in crisis management facilities. Satellite communications and ground terminals were introduced in 1970. The integration of the overall system was under- taken by the NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency (NACISA). The system is operated by the NATO Integrated Communications System Central Operating Authority (NICSCOA). Related policy matters are coordinated by the NATO Communications and Infor- mation Systems Committee (NACISC). The system is financed jointly by member nations through the NATO Common Infrastructure Programme. A Tri-Service Group on Communications and Electronics, established under the Conference of National Armaments Directors, promotes cooperation among the NATO nations in the development and procurement of communications and electronic equipment with the aim of achieving the maxi- mum degree of standardization or interoperability. 20. AIR DEFENCE Air defence of the NATO European airspace is provided by a complex system which enables aircraft and tactical missiles to be detected, tracked and intercepted either by ground-based weapons systems or by interceptor aircraft. The command and control structure which facilitates air defence, the NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE), includes a number of sites stretching from Northern Norway to Eastern Turkey equipped with modern radars and data processing and display systems, and linked by modern communications. Much of this integrated air defence system has been commonly fi- nanced through the NATO Infrastructure programme and a significant part of its successor, the Air Command and Control System, is expected to be similarly funded. During the late 1980's, the early warning capability was enhanced through the acquisition of a fleet of NATO E-3A Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft. These NATO-owned and operated aircraft, together with the United Kingdom E3-D aircraft, comprise the NATO Air- borne Early Warning Force, which is available to the Major NATO Commanders. The French and United States Air Forces operate E-3 aircraft, which can also inter- operate with the NADGE. As a consequence of the new security environment, Alliance air defences are adapting to a more flexible force concept, which can contribute effectively to crisis manage- ment. To realise this concept, in-place systems, sensors and weapons will need to be reinforced in times of crisis by readily transportable elements so that air defence forces can react as the occasion demands. Tactical ballis- tic missiles are now part of the weapons inventory of many countries, and the Alliance is therefore examining possible improvements in defence against such systems. The NATO Air Defence Committee (NADC) advises the North Atlantic Council and Defence Planning Com- mittee on all aspects of air defence, and enables member countries to harmonise their national efforts with inter- national planning related to air command and control and air defence weapons. The air defence of Canada and the United States is coordinated in the North American Aerospace Command (NORAD). 21. CIVIL EMERGENCY PLANNING Arrangements made by member nations for providing civil support for the common defence contribute signifi- cantly to the overall security of the Alliance. Civil prepar- edness and the management of resources are national responsibilities. However, much can be done through coordination within NATO to facilitate national planning and to ensure that the many facets of civil emergency planning contribute to the security of the Alliance in a cost-effective and well-structured manner. The principal NATO body with responsibilities in this sphere is the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee which co- ordinates the activities of a number of Planning Boards and Committees dealing with the mobilisation and use of resources in the fields of food and agriculture, industry, petroleum, inland surface transport, ocean shipping, civil aviation, civil communications, medical care and civil de- fence. NATO's civil emergency planning activities, directed by the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee, are experiencing a fundamental change. Greater emphasis is being placed on crisis management and civil support to the military, particularly in civil transport and industrial mobilisation planning. In accordance with directives of the North Atlantic Council, more flexible arrangements are being made for drawing on the expertise, in a crisis, of high-level experts from business and industry to support NATO's crisis management machinery as required. NATO experience and expertise in the Civil Emergency Planning field has also been directed towards the coordina- tion of humanitarian assistance to the republics of the Commonwealth of Independent States, where NATO has a subsidiary role in specific fields where its civil and military experience is of particular relevance. This includes coordi- nation of transport; logistical expertise and communica- tions support for distribution; and practical assistance in addressing medical requirements. NATO transport and sup- port was made available in March 1992 for a fact-finding mission of medical experts from nine countries and from NATO and other international organisations, in order to assess the medical needs of the member states of the CIS and to identify areas in the health-care field in which assist- ance could be given by the international community.(1) 22. CIVIL AND MILITARY COORDINATION OF AIR TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Large numbers of civilian and military aircraft use Euro- pean airspace over NATO member countries. It is the most complex air traffic environment in the world. Coordina- tion of air traffic management and control between civil and military users is therefore essential to enable civil aviation to operate both safely and economically, while at the same time allowing Allied air forces the freedom of operation which is a prerequisite for effective training and defence. Indeed, the flexibility and mobility of the smaller NATO forces of the future will be crucially depend- ent on the efficiency of the civil/military coordination arrangements governing their rapid airborne deployment. The North Atlantic Council recognised these concerns when it established the Committee for European Airspace Coordination (CEAC) in 1955. Since then this Committee has been responsible for ensuring that all civil and mili- tary airspace requirements are fully coordinated. This includes the conduct of major air exercises, the harmonisa- tion of air traffic control systems and procedures, and the sharing of communications frequencies. More recently, the surge in civilian air traffic, and delays caused by insufficient capacity of air traffic control and airport structures in many parts of Europe to cope with this mission, organised by the Medical Working Group of the Washington Coordinating Conference on Assistance to the Common- wealth of Independent States, included experts from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Sweden, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, the European Commission (EC), the World Health Organisation (WHO), UNICEF, the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Associations (IFPMA) and NATO. with peak-time traffic, have highlighted the need for effective coordination between civil and military authori- ties to ensure that the airspace is shared by all users on an equitable basis. Consequently, in the context of current efforts towards future pan-European integration of air traffic management, CEAC is represented in a number of international forums and is a participant in the Action Programme approved by the Transport Ministers of the European Civil Aviation Conference. Moreover, since exchanges of views on airspace management constitute part of the developing partnership between the NATO Alliance and its cooperation partners, the Committee is also actively engaged in this endeavour. A seminar on civil/military coordination of air traffic management was held in October 1991 with high-level participation by twenty-two countries and a further seminar was held in May 1992 to examine, inter alia, the possibilities for further cooperation in this field. The role played by CEAC, as the only international forum specifically charged with the resolution of civil and military air traffic management problems, is therefore likely to become increasingly important in the years to come. 23. SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES The concept of mutual security includes a broad range of global concerns which transcend national boundaries. These include maintaining a strong scientific base, preserv- ing the physical environment, managing natural resources and protecting health. NATO addresses these issues through programmes of scientific activity and projects of environmental importance. The programmes of the NATO Science Committee seek to advance the frontiers of science generally and to promote the broadest possible participation in scientific research by NATO nations. By providing multilateral support for high-level scientific research, they encourage the development of national scientific and technological resources and enable economies to be achieved through international collaboration. The NATO Science Programme was established in 1957, since when it has involved over half a million scientists from Alliance and other countries. Most of its activities promote collaboration through international exchange programmes and encourage international working arrange- ments among scientists, focussing in particular on individual rather than institutional involvement. The prin- cipal forms of exchange are Collaborative Research Grants, Advanced Study Institutes, Advanced Research Workshops and Science Fellowships. There are also a number of special programmes to stimulate activity in particularly promising areas of scientific research. The results of all these activities are generally available and are published in scientific literature. A further programme of the Science Committee is known as Science for Stability. This programme arose out of the need to provide concrete assistance, in the spirit of Article 2 of the North Atlantic Treaty, to the economically less prosperous member countries. The pro- gramme has concentrated on assisting Greece, Portugal and Turkey to enhance their scientific and technological research and development capacity and to strengthen cooperation between universities, public research insti- tutes and private companies. Its projects are essentially joint ventures of significance to the development of scien- tific, engineering and technogical capabilities which assist these countries by supplementing national resources with international funding for equipment, foreign technical or managerial expertise, and training abroad. The Science Committee is composed of national repre- sentatives able to speak authoritatively on scientific mat- ters and on behalf of their respective governments. It decides on policy and ensures the implementation of the Science Programme, in collaboration with the staff of the Scientific and Environmental Affairs Division. Following the changes in the political situation in Europe, the Science Programme has recently entered a new phase by being able to offer some funding for scien- tists from cooperation-partner countries to participate in its activities. The Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooperation established by the North Atlantic Co- operation Council (NACC) in March 1992 also provided for joint meetings of the Science Committee and co- operation partners, distribution of proceedings of NATO Scientific Meetings to central libraries in each country, intensive scientific courses, laboratory visits by experts, laboratory link-ups and a Science Committee Seminar on mobility of scientists, which was held in February 1992. In 1969 a Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society was established to respond to the Alliance's con- cern about environmental issues. Member countries have participated through this Committee in numerous initia- tives to take advantage of the potential offered by the Alliance for cooperation in tackling problems affecting the environment and the quality of life. Under the aus- pices of the Committee, projects have been undertaken in fields such as environmental pollution, noise, urban prob- lems, energy and human health, and safety issues. Two important concepts characterise the work of the Committee, namely that it should lead to concrete action and that its results should be entirely open and accessible to international organisations or individual countries else- where in the world. For each project embarked upon, one or more member nations volunteer to assume a pilot role, including responsibility for planning the work, coor- dinating its execution, preparing the necessary reports and promoting follow-up action. In accordance with the NACC Work Plan, the Com- mittee on the Challenges of Modern Society is also broadening its work to include joint meetings with NATO's cooperation partners, seminars on defence- related environmental issues, and new pilot studies on topics of particular interest to these countries.
NATO handbook04 uploaded March 25, 1993
PART II THE FUTURE ROLE OF THE ALLIANCE 24. AN ERA OF POLITICAL CHANGE The 4th of April 1989, which marked the fortieth anniversary of the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty, coincided with the beginning of a period of profound change in the course of East-West and international rela- tions. The following paragraphs briefly describe the origins and course of those developments, the progress achieved towards the realisation of many of the long-standing goals of the Alliance, and the principal issues of concern facing member countries as they adapt their policies and shape their common institutions to meet the challenges of the new security environment. The roots of the changes which have transformed the political map of Europe can be traced to a number of developments during the 1960s and 1970s which were to have far-reaching implications. While there were many aspects to these developments, three events stand out in particular, namely the adoption in December 1967 of the Harmel doctrine based on the parallel policies of maintain- ing adequate defence while seeking a relaxation of ten- sions in East-West relations; the introduction by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1969 of Chancellor Willi Brandt's ``Ostpolitik'', designed to bring about a more positive relationship with Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union within the constraints imposed by their governments' domestic poli- cies and actions abroad; and the adoption of the CSCE Helsinki Final Act in August 1975, which established new standards for the discussion of human rights issues and introduced measures to increase mutual confidence between East and West. A series of similarly important events marked the course of East-West relations during the 1980s. These included NATO's deployment of INF missiles (Inter- mediate Range Nuclear Forces) in Europe following the December 1979 double-track decision on nuclear modernis- ation and arms control; the subsequent Washington Treaty signed in December 1987, which brought about the elimination of US and Soviet land-based INF missiles on a global basis; early signs of change in Eastern Europe associated with the emergence and recognition, despite later setbacks, of the independent trade union movement ``Solidarity'' in Poland in August 1980; the consequences of the December 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and the ultimate withdrawal of Soviet forces from Afghanistan in February 1989; and the March 1985 nomination of Mikhail Gorbachev as General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party. In March 1989, in the framework of the CSCE, promis- ing new arms control negotiations opened in Vienna involving the 23 countries of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organisation on reductions in conventional forces in Europe (CFE). The NATO Summit Meeting held in Brussels at the end of May 1989 against this background was of particular significance. Two major statements of Alliance policy were published, namely a declaration marking the fortieth Anniversary of the Alliance, setting out goals and policies to guide the Allies during the fifth decade of their cooperation; and a Comprehensive Con- cept of Arms Control and Disarmament. The Summit Declaration contained many extremely important elements. It recognised the changes that were underway in the Soviet Union as well as in other Eastern European countries and outlined the Alliance's approach to the overcoming of the division of Europe and the shaping of a just and peaceful European order. It reiterated the need for credible and effective deterrent forces and an adequate defence and endorsed President Bush's arms control initia- tive calling for an acceleration of the CFE negotiations in Vienna and for significant reductions in additional catego- ries of conventional forces, as well as in United States and Soviet military personnel stationed outside their national territory. The Declaration set forth a broad agenda for expanded East/West cooperation in other areas, for action on significant global challenges and for measures designed to meet the Alliance's long-term objectives. Developments of major significance for the entire European continent and for international relations as a whole continued as the year progressed. By the end of 1989 and during the early weeks of 1990, significant progress had been made towards the reform of the politi- cal and economic systems of Poland and Hungary; and in the German Democratic Republic, Bulgaria, Czechoslova- kia and, after a bitter struggle, Romania, steps had been taken towards freedom and democracy which went far beyond short-term expectations. The promise held out for over 40 years to bring an end to the division of Europe and with it an end to the division of Germany took on real meaning with the opening of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. Beyond its fundamental symbolism, the member countries of the Alliance saw this event as part of an inevitable process leading to a Europe whole and free. The process was as yet far from complete and faced numerous obstacles and uncertainties, but rapid and dramatic progress had never- theless been achieved. Free elections had taken place or were planned in most Central and Eastern European countries, former divisions were being overcome, repres- sive border installations were being dismantled and, within less than a year, on 30 October 1990, the unifica- tion of the two German states took place with the assent of the Soviet Government on the basis of an international treaty and the democratic choice of the German people. Both the fact and the prospect of reform brought about major positive changes in the relationships of Central and Eastern European countries with the inter- national community, opening up a new and enriched dialogue involving East and West, which offered real hope in place of the prospect of confrontation, and practical proposals for cooperation in place of polemics and the stagnation of cold war politics. Such changes were not accomplished without difficulty and, as events within the former Soviet Union and other parts of Central and Eastern Europe confirmed, created new concerns about stability and security. The bold course of reforms within the Soviet Union itself led to new challenges as well as severe internal problems. More- over the dire economic outlook and the major difficulties experienced in many of the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in managing the transition from authori- tarian government and a centrally planned economy to pluralist democracy and a free market combined to make political forecasting uncertain and subject to constant revision. Throughout this period NATO continued to play a key role, providing the framework for consultation and coordi- nation of policies among its member countries in order to diminish the risk of a crisis arising which could impinge on common security interests. The Alliance pursued its efforts to remove military imbalances; to bring about greater openness in military matters; and to build confi- dence through radical but balanced and verifiable arms control agreements, verification arrangements and in- creased contacts at all levels. At the Summit Meeting in London in July 1990, in the most far-reaching Declaration issued since NATO was founded, the Heads of State and Government announced major steps to transform the Alliance in a manner commen- surate with the new security environment and to bring con- frontation between East and West to an end. They extended offers to the governments of the Soviet Union and Central and Eastern European countries to establish regular diplo- matic liaison with NATO and to work towards a new relationship based on cooperation. The Declaration had been foreshadowed a month earlier when NATO Foreign Ministers met in Scotland and took the exceptional step of issuing a ``Message from Turnberry'', extending an offer of friendship and cooperation to the Soviet Union and all other European countries. The announcement made by President Gorbachev in July 1990, accepting the par- ticipation of the united Germany in the North Atlantic Alliance, was explicitly linked to the nature of this Message and to the substantive proposals and commit- ments made by Alliance governments in London. The London Declaration included proposals to develop cooperation in numerous different ways. Leaders and representatives of Central and Eastern European coun- tries were invited to NATO Headquarters in Brussels. Many such visits took place. Arrangements for regular contacts at the diplomatic level were made. The Secretary General of NATO also visited Moscow immediately after the London Summit Meeting to convey to the Soviet leadership the proposals contained in the Declaration and the Alliance's determination to make constructive use of the new political opportunities opening up. A joint declaration and commitment to non-aggression was signed in Paris in November 1990 at the same time as the Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe and the publication, by all CSCE member states, of the Charter of Paris for a New Europe. The Joint Declaration formally brought adversarial relations to an end and reaffirmed the intention of the signatories to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, in accordance with the pur- poses and principles of the UN Charter and the Helsinki Final Act. All other states participating in the CSCE were invited to join this commitment. New military contacts were established, including intensified discussions of mili- tary forces and doctrines. Progress was made towards an ``Open Skies'' agreement, permitting overflights of national territory on a reciprocal basis in order to increase confidence and transparency with respect to military activities. Further talks were initiated to build on the CFE Treaty on reductions of conventional forces from the Atlantic to the Ural Mountains, including additional measures to limit manpower in Europe. Agreement was reached to intensify the CSCE process and to set new standards for the establishment and preservation of free societies. Measures were taken to enable the CSCE pro- cess, which has been successful in enhancing mutual con- fidence, to be further institutionalised in order to provide a forum for wider political dialogue in a more united Europe. Internally, NATO carried out a far-reaching review of its strategy in order to adapt it to the new cir- cumstances. Despite the positive course of many of these develop- ments, new threats to stability can arise very quickly and in unpredictable circumstances, as the 2 August 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent developments in the Gulf area demonstrated. NATO countries used the Alliance forum intensively for political consultations from the outbreak of this crisis. They played a prominent role in support of United Nations efforts to achieve a diplo- matic solution and reiterated their commitment under Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty in the event of an external threat to Turkey's security developing from the situation in the Gulf. Elements of NATO's Allied Mobile Force were sent to Turkey in order to demonstrate this commitment. Significantly, the unity of purpose and determined op- position by the international community to the actions taken by Iraq offered positive evidence of the transform- ation which had taken place in relations between the Soviet Union and the West. The benefits resulting from the establishment of better contacts and increased cooper- ation between them were clearly apparent. The dangers inherent in the Gulf crisis reinforced the Alliance's deter- mination to develop and enhance the level of its cooper- ation with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe as well as with other countries in accordance with the goals set by Alliance Heads of State and Government in the London Declaration. This determination was further reinforced by the events of 1991, including the repressive steps taken by the Soviet Government with regard to the Baltic states prior to conceding their right to establish their own independence; the deteriorating situation and outbreak of hostilities in Yugoslavia, leading to the break-up of the Yugoslav Federation; and the attempted coup d'etat in the Soviet Union itself which took place in August. Against the background of these events, 1991 was marked by an intensification of visits and diplomatic contacts between NATO and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe in accordance with the decisions taken by NATO Heads of State and Government in London. With the publication of the Rome Declaration in Novem- ber 1991, the basis was laid for placing their evolving relationship on a more institutionalised footing. The estab- lishment of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in December, bringing together the member countries of NATO and, initially, nine Central and Eastern European countries in a new consultative forum, was a direct conse- quence of this decision. The inaugural meeting of the North Atlantic Cooper- ation Council took place on 20 November 1991, just as the Soviet Union was ceasing to exist. Eleven former Soviet republics became members of the new Common- wealth of Independent States, entering a period of intense political and economic transformation. In Nagorno-Kara- bakh, Armenia and Azerbaijan, Georgia and elsewhere, outbreaks of violence occurred and serious inter-state tensions developed. The deteriorating situation, continuing use of force and mounting loss of life in the territory of the former Yugoslavia were further major causes of concern which marred the prospects for peaceful progress towards a new security environment in Europe. Both the North Atlantic Council and the North Atlantic Cooperation Council endeavoured to support efforts undertaken in other forums to restore peace and to bring their own influence to bear on the parties concerned. In March 1992 participation in the North Atlantic Cooperation Council was expanded to include all mem- bers of the Commonwealth of Independent States and by June 1992 Georgia and Albania had also become mem- bers. During the same period, discussion of measures de- signed to strengthen the role of the CSCE in promoting stability and democracy in Europe, including proposals outlined in the Rome Declaration issued by the Alliance, culminated in the signature of the 1992 Helsinki Document (``The Challenges of Change'') at the CSCE Summit Meet- ing in July 1992. The document describes, inter alia, new initiatives for the creation of a CSCE forum for security cooperation and for CSCE peace-keeping activities, for which both the North Atlantic Council and the North Atlantic Cooperation Council have expressed full support. At the November 1991 Summit Meeting in Rome, the Alliance also published its new Strategic Concept. This is based on a broad approach to security and sets out the principles and considerations which determine the future role of the Alliance and the transformation of its struc- tures needed to enable it to fulfil its continuing tasks and to play its full role, in cooperation with other inter- national institutions, in Europe's future security. The key elements of the Rome Declaration and the principal orientations of the Strategic Concept are out- lined in the following sections. 25. THE NEW SECURITY ARCHITECTURE The institutional basis for managing Europe's future secu- rity set out in the Rome Declaration takes as its starting point the fact that the challenges facing the new Europe cannot be comprehensively addressed by one institution alone. They require a framework of interlocking institu- tions, tying together the countries of Europe and North America in a system of inter-relating and mutually sup- porting structures. The Alliance is therefore working towards a new European security architecture which seeks to achieve this objective by ensuring that the roles of NATO, the CSCE, the European Community, the West- ern European Union and the Council of Europe are complementary. Other regional frameworks of cooper- ation can also play an important part. Preventing the instability and divisions which could result from causes such as economic disparities and violent nationalism depends on effective interaction between these various elements. The North Atlantic Alliance and the steps taken by the Alliance in the framework of the North Atlantic Cooper- ation Council are fundamental to this process. The Alliance itself is the essential forum for consultation among its members and is the venue for reaching agree- ment on and implementing policies with a bearing on their security and defence commitments under the North Atlantic Treaty. However, as the evolution of Europe's new security architecture progresses, the Alliance is developing practical arrangements, along with the other institutions involved, to ensure the necessary transparency and complementarity between them. This includes closer contacts and exchanges of information and documenta- tion between the institutions themselves, as well as recipro- cal arrangements regarding participation and representa- tion in appropriate meetings. 26. A BROAD APPROACH TO SECURITY The Alliance has always sought to achieve its over-riding objectives of safeguarding the security of its members and establishing a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe through both political and military means. This comprehen- sive approach remains the basis of the Alliance's security policy. However, in the new security situation, the chances of achieving these objectives by political means, as well as taking into account the economic, social and environ- mental dimensions of security and stability, are better than ever before. The Alliance's active pursuit of dialogue and cooperation, underpinned by the commitment to an effective collective defence capability and to building up the institutional basis for crisis management and conflict prevention, therefore has the following key objectives: to reduce the risk of conflict arising out of misunderstanding or design; to build increased mutual understanding and confidence among all European states; to help manage crises affecting the security of the Allies; and to expand the opportunities for a genuine partnership among all European countries in dealing with common security problems.
27. THE ALLIANCE'S STRATEGIC CONCEPT/ Europe's security has substantially improved. The threat of massive military confrontation no longer hangs over it. Nevertheless potential risks to security from instability or tension still exist. Against this background, NATO's Strategic Concept reaffirms the core functions of the Alliance including the maintenance of the transatlantic link and of an overall strategic balance in Europe. The Strategic Concept reflects the broad approach to stability and security outlined above. It recognises that security is based on political, economic, social and environmental considerations as well as defence. It reflects the unpreced- ented opportunity which now exists to achieve the Alli- ance's long-standing objectives by political means, in keeping with the undertakings made in Articles 2 and 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty. Accordingly, the future security policy of the Alliance can be based on three mutually reinforcing elements, namely: dialogue; cooper- ation; and the maintenance of a collective defence capabil- ity. Each of these elements is designed to ensure that crises affecting European security can be prevented or resolved peacefully. The military dimension of the Alliance remains an essential factor if these goals are to be achieved. It will continue to reflect a number of fundamental principles: - The Alliance is purely defensive in purpose. - Security is indivisible. An attack on one member of the Alliance is an attack upon all. The presence of North American forces in and committed to Europe remains vital to the security of Europe, which is inseparably linked to that of North America. - NATO's security policy is based on collective defence, including an integrated military structure as well as relevant cooperation and coordination agreements. - The maintenance of an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces based in Europe will be re- quired for the foreseeable future. / The full text of the Alliance's Strategic Concept is reproduced in Appendix II. In the changed circumstances affecting Europe's secu- rity, NATO forces are being adapted to the new strategic environment and are becoming smaller and more flexible. Conventional forces are being substantially reduced and in many cases so is their level of readiness. They are also being made more mobile, to enable them to react to a wider range of contingencies; and they are being reorgan- ised to ensure that they have the flexibility to contribute to crisis management and to enable them to be built up if necessary for the purposes of defence. Multinational forces will in future play a greater role within NATO's integrated military structure. Nuclear forces are also being greatly reduced. The withdrawal of short-range land-based nuclear weapons from Europe, announced in September 1991, was com- pleted in July 1992. The overall NATO stockpile of sub- strategic nuclear weapons in Europe is being reduced to about one fifth of the level of the 1990 stockpile. As far as strategic nuclear forces are concerned, far-reaching recip- rocal cuts were proposed by the President of the United States in his State of the Union address at the end of January 1992 and additional proposals were made by President Yeltsin. The fundamental purpose of the Alliance's remaining nuclear forces of either category will continue to be political: to preserve peace and prevent war or any kind of coercion. The Strategic Concept underlines that Alliance security must take account of the global context. It points out risks of a wider nature, including proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, disruption of the flow of vital re- sources and actions of terrorism and sabotage, which can affect Alliance security interests. The Concept therefore re- affirms the importance of arrangements existing in the Alliance for consultation among the Allies under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty and, where appropriate, coordination of its efforts including its responses to such risks. The Alliance will continue to address broader challenges in its consultations and in the appropriate multilateral forums in the widest possible cooperation with other states. 28. DIALOGUE, PARTNERSHIP AND COOPERATION The development of dialogue and partnership with its new cooperation partners forms an integral part of NATO's Strategic Concept. The establishment of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council at the end of 1991 thus marked a further advance in the evolution of a new, positive relationship based on constructive dialogue and cooperation. The creation of the NACC was the culmination of a number of earlier steps taken by the members of the Alliance in the light of the fundamental changes which were taking place in Central and Eastern European coun- tries. At the July 1990 London Summit Meeting the Alliance extended its hand of friendship and established regular diplomatic liaison with them. In Paris, in Novem- ber 1990, the Alliance members and their new partners signed a Joint Declaration stating that they no longer regarded each other as adversaries. In June 1991, when Alliance Foreign Ministers met in Copenhagen, further steps were taken to develop this partnership. As a result of high level visits, exchanges of views on security and other issues, intensified military contacts and exchanges of expertise in many fields, a new relationship has been built up. When NATO Heads of State and Government met in Rome in November 1991, they decided to broaden and intensify this dynamic process. In reaching this decision they took account of the growth of democratic institu- tions throughout Central and Eastern Europe, the encour- aging experience of cooperation acquired thus far and the desire shown by their cooperation partners for closer ties. As a next step they therefore decided to develop the institutional basis for consultation and cooperation on political and security issues. Foreign Ministers of Central and Eastern European governments were invited to attend a meeting with their NATO counterparts to issue a joint political declaration in order to enhance the concept of partnership, and to work out how the process should be further developed. Concrete proposals for periodic meetings and contacts with the North Atlantic Council, the NATO Military Committee and other NATO commit- tees were put forward, in addition to the creation of the NACC. These steps were designed to enable the member coun- tries of the Alliance to respond effectively to the changed situation in Europe and to contribute positively to the efforts undertaken by their cooperation partners to fulfil their commitments under the CSCE process and to make democratic change irrevocable. Consisting of Foreign Ministers or Representatives of the 16 NATO countries as well as the Central and Eastern European and Baltic States with which NATO established diplomatic liaison during 1990 and 1991, the NACC held its inaugural meeting on 20 December 1991 with the par- ticipation of 25 countries. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union which took place on the same day, and the subsequent creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), participation in the NACC was expanded to include all the member states of the CIS. Georgia and Albania joined the process in April and June 1992 respec- tively. At the meeting of the NACC held in Oslo in June 1992, Finland also attended as an observer. Consultations and cooperation in the framework of the NACC focus on security and related issues where Alliance member countries can offer experience and exper- tise, such as defence planning, democratic concepts of civilian-military relations, scientific and environmental affairs, civil/military coordination of air traffic manage- ment and the conversion of defence production to civilian purposes. Participation by all these countries in NATO's scientific and environmental programmes is also be- ing enhanced, as well as the dissemination of inform- ation about NATO in the countries concerned, through diplomatic liaison channels and embassies and by other means. NATO governments undertook to provide appro- priate resources to support these activities. The Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooper- ation issued by the countries represented in the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in March 1992, identified a number of topics in the defence-planning field where cooperation and consultation could be of particular rel- evance. These include principles and key aspects of strategy; force and command structures; military exer- cises, democratic concepts of civilian-military relations; national defence programmes and budgets; and training and education methods and concepts in the defence field. A number of activities are taking place in these areas, including joint meetings, military contacts and visits, and participation in courses at the NATO Defense College in Rome and the NATO (SHAPE) School at Oberammergau. Defence Ministers held their first joint meeting with cooperation partners on 1 April 1992 to discuss current issues and to consider ways of deepening their dialogue and promoting cooperation on issues falling within their competence. It was decided to hold a high level seminar on defence policy and management, covering the role and constitutional position of armed forces in democratic societies as well as strategic concepts and their implement- ation; and a workshop on practical aspects of defence management and the reform and restructuring of armed forces. A further workshop on practices and work meth- ods relating to the environmental clean-up of defence installations was also scheduled. Other possible areas for cooperation on defence-related issues identified by Defence Ministers include discussion of concepts such as defence sufficiency, stability, flexibil- ity and crisis management; how defence programmes can be planned and managed in democratic societies (eg, accountability, financial planning, programme budgeting and management, research and development, equipment procurement procedures and personnel man- agement); consideration of the legal and constitutional framework regarding the position of military forces in a democracy; democratic control of armed forces; civil- military relations and parliamentary accountability; har- monisation of defence planning and arms control issues; matters relating to training and exercises; defence edu- cation; and other topics including reserve forces, environ- mental concerns, air traffic management, search and rescue activities, humanitarian aid and military medicine. NATO Defence Ministers meeting in Gleneagles in October 1992 also indicated that peace keeping issues would be a further subject of discussion with cooperation partners. The first meeting of the Military Committee in Co- operation Session took place on 10 April 1992 at Chiefs of Staff level, in accordance with the NACC Work Plan. It represented an important milestone in the partnership process and resulted in a military work plan designed to develop cooperation and to assist cooperation partners with the process of restructuring their armed forces. Fur- ther meetings and other activities, including bilateral visits of military officials to and from cooperation countries, are taking place in this framework. 29. THE CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE A key component of the new security architecture is the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe or CSCE (see Part IV). The Alliance remains deeply committed to strengthen- ing the CSCE process, which has a vital role to play in promoting stability and democracy in Europe. Consulta- tions within the Alliance thus continue to be a source of initiatives for strengthening the CSCE, which has the outstanding advantage of being the only forum that brings together all the countries of Europe as well as Canada and the United States under a common frame- work with respect to human rights, fundamental freedoms, democracy, rule of law, security, and economic liberty. New CSCE institutions and structures, proposed at the NATO Summit in London in July 1990, were created at the Paris CSCE Summit in November 1990. Efforts are now being made to enable them to be consoli- dated and further developed so as to provide the CSCE with the means to ensure full implementation of the Helsinki Final Act, the Charter of Paris, and other CSCE documents. The CSCE's capacity as a forum for consultation and cooperation among all participating States is thus being enhanced to ensure that it is capable of effective action in line with its new and increased responsibilities. This applies in particular to the role of the CSCE with regard to questions of human rights and security, including arms control and disarmament, and to its contribution to effective crisis management and peaceful settlement of disputes in ways which are consistent with international law and CSCE principles. A number of specific proposals were made at the NATO Summit Meeting in Rome to translate these objectives into practical realities. These ideas were taken several steps further in December 1991 when NATO Foreign Ministers set out broad policy objectives for the prepara- tion of the 1992 Helsinki Follow-Up Meeting. They in- cluded the establishment of a European security forum, preserving the autonomy and distinct character of the various elements involved in the process but also ensuring coherence between them; and the institution of a perma- nent security dialogue in which legitimate security concerns can be addressed. 30. EUROPE'S SECURITY IDENTITY AND DEFENCE ROLE Further important elements in the progress towards the new security architecture, subject to decisions concerning their ratification, are the Treaties on Monetary and Political Union signed by the leaders of the European Community in Maastricht in December 1991. The Treaty on Political Union included agreement on the develop- ment of a common foreign and security policy, including the eventual framing of a common defence policy which might in time lead to a common defence. It included reference to the Western European Union (WEU) (see Part IV) as an integral part of the development of the European Union which would be created by the two Treaties and requested the WEU to elaborate and imple- ment decisions and actions of the European Union which have defence implications. At the meeting of the WEU Member States which took place in Maastricht at the same time as the meeting of the European Council, a declaration was issued inviting members of the European Union to accede to the WEU or to become observers, and inviting other European mem- bers of NATO to become associate members of the WEU. The Treaty on Political Union also made provision for a report evaluating the progress made and experience gained in the field of foreign and security policy to be presented to the European Council in 1996. The Alliance welcomed these steps, recognising that the development of a European security identity and defence role, reflected in the strengthening of the European pillar within the Alliance, will reinforce the integrity and effectiveness of the Atlantic Alliance as a whole. Moreover these two positive processes are mutu- ally reinforcing. In parallel with them, member countries of the Alliance have agreed to enhance the essential transatlantic link which the Alliance guarantees and to maintain fully the strategic unity and the indivisibility of their security. The Alliance's Strategic Concept, which is the agreed conceptual basis for the military forces of all the members of the Alliance, facilitates complementarity between the Alliance and the emerging defence component of the European political unification process. The Alliance mem- ber countries intend to preserve their existing operational coherence since, ultimately, their security depends on it. However, they welcomed the prospect of a gradual rein- forcement of the role of the Western European Union, both as the defence component of the process of European unification and as a means of strengthening the Euro- pean pillar of the Alliance. WEU member states have affirmed that the Alliance will remain the essential forum for consultation among its members and the venue for agreement on policies bearing on the security and defence commitments of Allies under the Washington Treaty. 31. ARMS CONTROL Efforts to bring about more stable international relations at lower levels of military forces and armaments, through effective and verifiable arms control agreements and confidence-building measures, have long been an integral part of NATO's security policy. Meaningful and verifiable arms control agreements, which respect the security con- cerns of all the countries involved in the process, help to improve stability, increase mutual confidence and dimin- ish the risks of conflict. Defence and arms control policies must therefore remain in harmony and their respective roles in safeguarding security must be consistent and mutually reinforcing. The principal criterion for the Alliance in the context of all arms control negotiations is not whether agreements are desirable objectives in their own right, but rather whether or not they maintain stab- ility and enhance the long-term security interests of all participants. To do this successfully agreements have to be clear and precise, verifiable and not open to circumvention. Arms control deals essentially with two broad catego- ries of proposal: those seeking agreement on measures to build confidence and those which result in reductions and limitations of military manpower and equipment. The Alliance is actively involved in both these areas. Extensive consultation takes place within NATO over the whole range of disarmament and arms control issues so that commonly agreed positions can be reached and national policies coordinated. In addition to the consultation which takes place in the North Atlantic Council and the Political Committees, a number of special bodies have been created to deal with specific arms control issues. In May 1989, in order to take account of all the complex and interrelated issues arising in the arms control context, the Alliance developed a Comprehensive Con- cept of Arms Control and Disarmament. The Concept provided a framework for the policies of the Alliance in the whole field of arms control. It covered the conclusion and implementation of the INF Treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union in December 1987, which eliminated all United States and Soviet land-based intermediate-range missiles on a global basis. Other objectives of the Comprehensive Concept included: - a 50 per cent reduction in the strategic offensive nuclear weapons of the United States and the Soviet Union; - the global elimination of chemical weapons; - the establishment of a stable and secure level of con- ventional forces by eliminating disparities in the whole of Europe; - in conjunction with the establishment of a conven- tional balance, tangible and verifiable reductions of land-based nuclear missile systems of shorter-range, leading to equal ceilings. The negotiations on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) among the member countries of NATO and of the Warsaw Treaty Organisation, which began in Vienna in March 1989, resulted in the conclusion of the CFE Treaty on 19 November 1990. The Treaty was signed by the 22 states, in the framework of the Confer- ence on Security and Cooperation in Europe, during a Summit Meeting in Paris of all 34 countries then particip- ating in the CSCE process. Also signed at the Paris Summit by all CSCE participants was the Vienna Docu- ment 90, containing a large number of substantial confidence- and security-building measures applicable throughout Europe. In March 1992 this document was subsumed by the Vienna Document 92, in which further measures on openness and transparency were introduced. As a result of the dramatic political and military de- developments which have taken place since 1989, some of the initial premises for the CFE Treaty changed during the course of the negotiations. Key factors in this respect were the unification of Germany; substantial Soviet troop withdrawals from Eastern Europe; the advent of demo- cratic governments in Central and Eastern Europe; the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact; and comprehensive unilateral reductions in the size of Soviet armed forces as well as those of other countries in the region. Notwithstanding these changes which inevitably had major implications, particularly in terms of the attribution of national responsibility for implementing the Treaty, the successful outcome of the negotiations and the entry into force of the Treaty are fundamental enhancements of European security. The Treaty is the culmination of efforts initiated by the Alliance in 1986 to reduce the level of armed forces in Europe from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains. It imposes legally-binding limits on key categories of forces and equipment held individu- ally and collectively. The limits are designed not only to bring about dramatic reductions but also to ensure that no single country is able to maintain military forces at levels which would enable it to hold a dominating military position on the European continent. The main categories of equipment covered by these provisions are those which constitute offensive military capability, namely tanks, artillery, armoured combat vehicles, combat aircraft and helicopters. In addition, there are provisions contained in declara- tions forming an integral part of the Treaty on land- based naval aircraft and a no-increase commitment with regard to personnel strengths. The implementation of the Treaty provisions is subject to a precise calendar and a rigid regime of information exchanges and inspections under detailed ``verification'' clauses. Two further essential elements of the CFE Treaty should be mentioned, namely: (a) the establishment of a Joint Consultative Group, on which all the parties to the Treaty are represented, where any issues relating to implementation can be raised and discussed; and (b) the opening of follow-on (CFE IA) talks on further measures including limitations on personnel strengths. These talks began on 29 November 1990. The members of the Alliance attach paramount import- ance to the Treaty as the cornerstone of Europe's future military security and stability and, together with their cooperation partners, have called upon all the countries concerned to move forward promptly with its ratification and full implementation. In December 1991 they jointly established a High Level Working Group in which all Central and Eastern European countries are actively par- ticipating, as well as the independent states in the former Soviet Union with territory in the CFE area of application, with a view to facilitating the early entry into force of the Treaty. In February 1992 agreement was reached on a phased approach for bringing the CFE Treaty into force. In May agreement was reached in the High Level Working Group with the eight former Soviet states concerned on the apportionment of rights and obligations assumed by the Soviet Union under the terms of the CFE Treaty. This agreement, which was confirmed at the June 1992 Extra- ordinary Conference in Oslo, provided the basis for the provisional entry into force of the CFE Treaty through- out the area of application on 17 July 1992, allowing its verification procedures to be implemented immediately. Following ratification by all eight states of the former Soviet Union with territory in the area of application of the Treaty, and completion of the ratification process by all 29 signatories, the CFE Treaty formally entered into force on 9 November 1992. The Alliance also attaches considerable importance to the parallel implementation of the Concluding Act on the Negotiation on Personnel Strength of Conventional Armed Forces in Europe which establishes the commitments entered into by the parties to the CFE IA follow-on negotiations in accordance with agreements reached on 6 July 1992. In 1990 the North Atlantic Council established a Verifica- tion Coordinating Committee to coordinate verification efforts among members of the Alliance with regard to arms control and disarmament agreements in general, and particu- larly with regard to the CFE Treaty. The Committee ensures information exchange among Alliance nations on their inspection plans and on any verification-related issues. It also oversees the development and operation of a central verification data base maintained at NATO Headquarters, in which all data relative to inspections are permanently stored. In addition the Committee supervises the inspection support activities of the NATO Military Authorities, such as the development of common field procedures or the conduct of NATO verification courses, providing guidance as necessary. Last but not least, the Committee serves as a forum for consultations among Allies on compliance concerns and related issues. The Verification Coordinating Committee has also become the forum for consultation, coordination and exchange of experience among Allies on activities related to the implementation of the Stockholm and Vienna 1990 CSCE Documents on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures, (subsequently subsumed by the Vienna Docu- ment 1992) such as evaluation visits, inspections or exer- cise observations. Other important new elements introducing greater open- ness and confidence-building in the military field include agreements achieved in March 1992 on an ``Open Skies'' regime, permitting overflights of national territory on a reciprocal basis. The CSCE process has a pivotal role in the field of arms control and disarmament. The 1992 CSCE Follow-Up Meeting in Helsinki was therefore seen as a turning point in the arms control and disarmament process in Europe which now involves all CSCE participants. It offered a unique opportunity to move the process forward and, by shaping a new cooperative order, to make it unnecessary for any participating country to fear for its security. The decisions taken at the conclusion of the Helsinki Follow- up Meeting are summarised in Part IV. In the field of nuclear arms control, the Alliance's objective is to achieve security at the minimum level of nuclear arms sufficient to preserve peace and stability. The early ratification of the START Agreement signed on 31 July 1991, is an important aspect of this. President Bush's initiative of 27 September 1991, which was strongly supported by the Alliance, opened new prospects for nuclear arms reductions. In particular, the decision to eliminate nuclear warheads for ground-launched short- range weapon systems fulfilled the SNF arms control ob- jectives expressed in the London Declaration of July 1990. In January 1992 the United States President again took the initiative in the field of nuclear arms control in his State of the Union address, proposing further reciprocal cuts in strategic nuclear forces. The initial reactions of the Russian leadership were extremely positive and included additional proposals. Allies also welcomed the announce- ment made in May 1992 that withdrawal of former Soviet tactical nuclear weapons to the territory of Russia for ultimate dismantlement had been completed. They fully supported the Lisbon Agreement of May 1992 between the United States and the four successor states of the former Soviet Union with nuclear weapons on their terri- tory (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine), commit- ting them to joint implementation of the START Treaty. The June 1992 agreement between the United States and Russia to reduce their strategic forces well below the ceilings established in the START Treaty, and to elimi- nate land-based multiple warhead intercontinental ballis- tic missiles, was a further major step. Despite these many positive developments in the field of arms control, the global proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and of their means of delivery is a matter of serious concern to Alliance governments since it under- mines international security. NATO Foreign Ministers have made clear their preoccupations on this subject repeatedly, emphasizing that non-proliferation of nuclear weapons is an essential element of cooperative security and international stability. They have offered to provide assistance in the process of eliminating nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union and have stressed the need for measures to prevent the unauthorised export of nuclear or other destabilizing equipment and technology. Similar concerns about proliferation were voiced by all the mem- bers of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in their statements of December 1991 and June 1992, underlining the importance attached to efforts undertaken in this field. The Alliance welcomed the commitments by Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine to adhere to the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty as non-nuclear weapon states and urged these states to implement all their commitments as soon as time allowed. Transfers of conventional armaments which exceed legitimate defensive needs, to other regions where tensions exist, also make the peaceful settlement of disputes less likely. The Alliance therefore has supported the establish- ment by the United Nations of a universal non- discriminatory register of conventional arms transfers as well as steps undertaken to address other aspects of proliferation and further initiatives designed to build confidence and underpin international security. Within the CSCE, NATO Allies have led the way in tabling proposals dealing with non-proliferation in general and transfers of conventional weapons in particular. An additional essential aim remains the completion of a global, comprehensive and effectively verifiable ban on chemical weapons. In June 1992 negotiators in Geneva agreed on the final draft of an agreement, paving the way for approval of the document by the UN General Assembly in October 1992 and the signing of a Treaty in Paris early in 1993. In a related field, the results achieved by the Third Review Conference of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the decision taken to explore the feasibility of verification in this area, have been further positive developments.
PART III ORGANISATION AND STRUCTURES 32. NATO Headquarters The NATO Headquarters in Brussels is the political head- quarters of the Alliance and the permanent home of the North Atlantic Council. It houses Permanent Represent- atives and national delegations, the Secretary General and the International Staff, national Military Representatives, the Chairman of the Military Committee and the Inter- national Military Staff, and a number of NATO agencies. There are approximately 2,640 people employed at this Headquarters on a full-time basis. Of these, some 1,000 are members of national delegations and national military representations to NATO. There are approximately 1,260 civilian members of the International Staff and 380 mem- bers of the International Military Staff including 100 civilian personnel. 33. Permanent Representatives and National Delegations Each member nation is represented on the North Atlantic Council by an Ambassador or Permanent Representative supported by a national delegation composed of advisers and officials who represent their country on different NATO committees. The delegations are similar in many respects to small embassies. Their collocation within the same headquarters building enables them to maintain formal and informal contacts with each other, as well as with NATO's international staffs, easily and without delay. 34. The International Staff The work of the North Atlantic Council and its commit- tees is supported by an International Staff consisting of personnel from member countries either recruited directly by the Organisation or seconded by their governments, normally for periods of 3-4 years. The members of the International Staff are responsible to the Secretary General and owe their allegiance to the Organisation throughout the period of their appointment. The International Staff comprises the Office of the Secretary General, five operational Divisions, the Office of Management and the Office of the Financial Con- troller. Each of the Divisions is headed by an Assistant Secretary General, who is normally the chairman of the main committee dealing with subjects in his field of responsibility. Through their structure of Directorates and Services, the Divisions support the work of the committees in the various fields of activity described in Parts I and II. 35. The Secretary General The Secretary General is responsible for promoting and directing the process of consultation and decision-making through the Alliance. He is the Chairman of the North Atlantic Council, the Defence Planning Committee and the Nuclear Planning Group as well as titular Chairman of other senior committees. He may propose items for discussion and decision and has the authority to use his good offices in cases of dispute between member coun- tries. He is responsible for directing the International Staff and is the principal spokesman for the Alliance in relations between governments and with the media. The Deputy Secretary General assists the Secretary General in the exercise of his functions and replaces him in his absence. He is Chairman of the High Level Task Force on Conventional Arms Control, the Executive Working Group, the NATO Air Defence Committee, the Joint Consultative Board, and a number of other Ad Hoc and Working Groups. The Secretary General has under his direct control a Private Office and the Office of the Secretary General. The Private Office supports the Secretary General and Deputy Secretary General in all aspects of their work. Its staff includes a Legal Adviser and a Special Adviser for Central and Eastern European Affairs. 36. The Office of the Secretary General consists of the Executive Secretariat (including the Verification, Information Systems and Council Operations Director- ate), the Office of Information and Press and the NATO Office of Security. 37. The Executive Secretariat is responsible for ensuring the smooth functioning of Council, Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group business and the work of the whole structure of committees and work- ing groups set up under these bodies. Members of the Executive Secretariat act as Committee Secretaries and provide secretarial and administrative back-up for the Council and a number of other committees. Agendas, summary records, reports, decision and action sheets are prepared and issued by Committee Secretaries under the responsibility of the Committee Chairmen. The Executive Secretary is Secretary to the Council, Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group and is responsible for ensuring that the work of the different divisions of the International Staff is carried out in accordance with the directives given. Through the Verification, Information Systems and Council Opera- tions Directorate, the Executive Secretary, in addition to these functions, coordinates crisis management arrange- ments and procedures in NATO including their regular exercising; provides staff support to the Verification Co- ordinating Committee; and ensures ADP support to both the International Staff and International Military Staff and office communications for the entire NATO Headquarters. He is also responsible on behalf of the Secretary General for the development and control of the NATO Situation Centre. The Director of the Inter- national Military Staff, acting for the Military Com- mittee, is responsible for the coordination of the day to day operation of the Centre with the Chief of the Situation Centre. 38. The Office of Information and Press consists of a Press and Media Service and an Information Service divided into a Planning, Production and Budget Section and an External Relations Section. The Director of Information and Press is Chairman of the Committee on Information and Cultural Relations and of the annual meeting of Ministry of Defence Information Officials. The Director is assisted by a Deputy Director, Information; and a Deputy Director, Press, who is also the official spokes- man for the Secretary General and the Organisation in contacts with the media. The Press and Media Service arranges accreditation for journalists; issues press releases, communiques and speeches by the Secretary General; and provides a daily press review and press cutting service for the staff of the NATO Headquarters in Brussels. It organises media inter- views with the Secretary General and other NATO officials and provides technical assistance and facilities for radio and television transmissions. The Information Service assists member governments to widen public understanding of NATO's role and policies through a variety of programmes and activities. These make use of periodical and non-periodical publications, video film production, photographs and exhibitions, group visits, conferences and seminars and research fellow- ships. The Office includes a library and documentation service and a media library. The Office of Information and Press maintains close contacts with national information authorities and non- governmental organisations and undertakes activities designed to explain the aims and achievements of the Alliance to public opinion in each member country. The Office also organises or sponsors a number of multina- tional programmes involving citizens of different member countries and, in conjunction with NATO's cooperation partners, undertakes information activities designed to enhance public knowledge and understanding of the Alliance in the countries represented in the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. 39. The NATO Office of Security coordinates, monitors and implements NATO security policy. The Director of Security is the Secretary General's principal adviser on security issues and is Chairman of the NATO Security Committee. He directs the NATO Headquarters Security Service and is responsible for the overall coordination of security within NATO. 40. The Division of Political Affairs comes under the respons- ibility of the Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs, who is Chairman of the Senior Political Commit- tee and of the Political Committee. The Division has two Directorates: 41. The Political Directorate is responsible for: (a) preparation of the political discussions of the Council and of the discussions of the Political Committee at regular and senior level as well as meetings with cooperation partners; (b) preparation of notes and reports on political subjects for the Secretary General and the Council; (c) political liaison with the delegations of member coun- tries and with representatives of cooperation part- ners; (d) preparation of the meetings of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council and diplomatic liaison contacts on political and security related matters with NATO's cooperation partners; (e) liaison with other governmental and non-governmen- tal international organisations. The day to day work of the Political Directorate is handled by four sections responsible respectively for NATO as well as multilateral and regional affairs; policy planning; issues concerning cooperation activities and liaison with the countries represented in the North Atlan- tic Cooperation Council; and disarmament, arms control and cooperative security. The Director of the Political Directorate is Deputy Assist- ant Secretary General for Political Affairs and Deputy Chairman of the Senior Political Committee, and Acting Chairman of the Political Committee at regular level. 42. The Economics Directorate provides advice concerning economic developments which have political or defence implications for NATO. It undertakes studies of economic trends and carries out studies of economic aspects of security on behalf of the Economics Committee; prepares economic assessments of NATO countries for the Defence Review Committee in the context of NATO defence plan- ning; and maintains contacts with international economic organisations. The Economics Directorate also has re- sponsibility for preparing contacts on economic issues and consultations involving NATO's cooperation partners in fields such as defence conversion, defence expenditure, and the external economic relations of the cooperation partners. The Director of the Economics Directorate is Chairman of the Economics Committee. 43. The Division of Defence Planning and Policy comes under the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary Gen- eral for Defence Planning and Policy, who is Chairman of the Defence Review Committee and Vice-Chairman of the Executive Working Group. He also supervises the work of the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) Staff Group and is Chairman of the open-ended Group on Defence Matters established to address defence-related issues in- volving NATO's cooperation partners and to serve as a clearing house for proposals for cooperation in the de- fence field. The Division has two Directorates: 44. The Force Planning Directorate is responsible for de- fence policy issues and the preparation, in collaboration with national delegations, of all papers and business concerned with the Defence Review, including the analy- sis of national defence programmes; for other matters of a politico-military nature considered by the Defence Plan- ning Committee; for the preparation of studies of general or particular aspects of NATO defence planning and policy on behalf of the Executive Working Group; for the maintenance of a computerised data base of informa- tion on NATO forces; and for the organisation and direction of statistical studies required to assess the NATO defence effort. The Director for Force Planning is Vice-Chairman of the Defence Review Committee. 45. The Nuclear Planning Directorate is responsible for coordination of work on the development of NATO defence policy in the nuclear field and the work of the Nuclear Planning Group. The Director of Nuclear Planning is Chairman of the NPG Staff Group. 46. The Division of Defence Support, under the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary General for Defence Support, has the following tasks: (a) advising the Secretary General, the North Atlantic Council, the Defence Planning Committee and other NATO bodies on all matters relating to armaments research, development, production, procurement, and materiel aspects of air defence and command, control and communications systems; (b) promoting the most efficient use of the resources of the Alliance for the equipment of its forces. The Division provides liaison with NATO production and logistics organisations concerned with cooperative equipment projects and liaison with NATO military agen- cies dealing with defence research and related issues. It participates in all aspects of the NATO Defence Planning process within its responsibility and competence. The Assistant Secretary General for Defence Support serves as the Permanent Chairman of the Conference of National Armaments Directors. The Division consists of four Directorates: 47. The Directorate of Armaments and Defence Research is responsible for encouraging member nations to exchange information and to harmonise concepts and requirements for future maritime, land, air, research and technological capabilities in order to achieve cooperative research, development and production programmes and to facili- tate a high level of materiel standardization. The objective is to improve the overall efficiency of NATO forces and to make better use of the limited resources available for defence purposes. 48. The Directorate of Command, Control and Communi- cations is responsible for encouraging cooperative programmes in communications and electronics, for the development and coordination of the overall policy and planning aspects of NATO's civil and military communi- cations, and for providing support to the NATO Commu- nications and Information Systems Committee and the Tri-Service Group on Communications and Electronic Equipment. 49. The Directorate of Air Defence Systems is responsible for promoting and coordinating efforts to assure the con- tinuing adequacy, effectiveness and efficiency of NATO air defence systems; for providing support to the NATO Air Defence Committee whose role is to advise the Council and Defence Planning Committee on all aspects of air defence programme development; and for liaison with the agencies responsible for the implementation of air defence related systems, the NATO airborne early warning programme, the air command and control system programme and the Improved HAWK surface-to-air missile system. 50. The Directorate of Cooperation, Planning and Standardiz- ation is responsible for a range of policy preparation and planning activities in support of armaments cooperation, including the management of the Conventional Arm- aments Planning System (CAPS) and Alliance consulta- tions on harmonising defence procurement policies; for promoting international cooperation among industries in the defence equipment field and between governments and industry; for liaison with outside bodies; and for providing coordination and staff support to the activities of NATO committees or bodies dealing with standardiz- ation and Defence Support matters in the areas of mate- rial management, codification, quality assurance, safety of transportation and storage of ammunition and explosives, intellectual property and acquisition practices. 51. The Division of Infrastructure, Logistics and Civil Emer- gency Planning comes under the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary General for Infrastructure, Logistics and Civil Emergency Planning, who is Chairman of the Infrastructure Committee and the Infrastructure Payments and Progress Committee. He is also Chairman of the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee in plenary session and co-Chairman of the Senior NATO Logisticians' Conference. The Division consists of three Directorates: 52. The Infrastructure Directorate comes under the direc- tion of the Controller for Infrastructure, who is the permanent Chairman of the Infrastructure Committee; and of the Deputy Controller, who is the permanent Chairman of the Infrastructure Payments and Progress Committee. The Infrastructure Directorate is responsible for supporting the Infrastructure Committees by: (a) developing proposals on policy issues, on funding issues related to the shape and size of NATO Infra- structure programmes and on improved procedures for their management; (b) providing technical and financial supervision of the NATO Infrastructure Programme; (c) screening, from the technical, financial, economic and political points of view, the Major NATO Command- ers' programmes for annual Infrastructure Slices and related cost estimates; and (d) screening, from a technical and financial point of view, requests to the Payments and Progress Commit- tee for authorisation of scope and funds. 53. The Logistics Directorate comes under the direction of the Director of Logistics, who is the Chairman of the NATO Pipeline Committee and Deputy co-Chairman of the Senior NATO Logisticians' Conference. The Direct- orate is responsible for: (a) the development and coordination of plans and poli- cies designed to achieve a coherent approach within NATO on consumer logistics matters in order to in- crease the effectiveness of Alliance forces by achieving greater logistical readiness and sustainability; (b) providing staff support to the Senior NATO Logisti- cians' Conference and its subsidiary bodies; (c) providing technical staff support to the NATO Pipeline Committee; (d) supporting, coordinating and maintaining liaison with NATO military authorities and with NATO and other committees and bodies dealing with the planning and implementation of consumer logistics matters; and (e) maintaining liaison, on behalf of the Secretary Gen- eral, with the directing bodies of the Central Europe Pipeline System and the NATO Maintenance and Support Organisation. 54. The Civil Emergency Planning Directorate, under the direction of the Director of Civil Emergency Planning, who is the Chairman of the Senior Civil Emergency Plan- ning Committee in permanent session, is responsible for: (a) the coordination and guidance of planning aimed at the rapid transition of peacetime economies of the nations of the Alliance to an emergency footing; (b) development of the arrangements for the use of civil resources in support of Alliance defence and for the protection of civil populations; and (c) providing staff support to the Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee and the nine civil emergency planning boards and committees responsible for developing crisis management arrangements in the areas of civil sea, land and air transport; energy; industry; food and agriculture; civil communications; medical care; and civil defence. The Director of Civil Emergency Planning also over- sees, on behalf of the Secretary General, the civil/military coordination of humanitarian assistance for the republics of the Commonwealth of Independent States in the fields of coordination of transport; logistical expertise and com- munications support for distribution; and practical assist- ance in addressing medical requirements. These tasks are being undertaken by the Alliance, which has a subsidiary role in this field, in accordance with principles agreed by member countries. NATO is providing support in areas in which the Alliance has unique experience or expertise, in close cooperation with NATO nations, other international organisations and recipient states. 55. The Scientific and Environmental Affairs Division comes under the responsibility of the Assistant Secretary Gen- eral for Scientific and Environmental Affairs, who is Chairman of the NATO Science Committee and Acting Chairman of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. He has the following responsibilities: (a) advising the Secretary General on scientific and tech- nological matters of interest to NATO; (b) implementing the decisions of the Science Committee; directing the activities of the sub-committees created by it and developing ways to strengthen scientific and technological capabilities of Alliance countries; (c) supervising the development of pilot projects initiated by the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Soci- ety; (d) ensuring liaison in the scientific field with the Inter- national Staff of NATO, with NATO agencies, with agencies in the member countries responsible for im- plementation of science policies and with inter- national organisations engaged in scientific, techno- logical and environmental activities. The Assistant Secretary General for Scientific and Envi- ronmental Affairs also has responsibility for overseeing activities designed to enhance the participation of scien- tists from NATO's cooperation partners in NATO science programmes, and in projects of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. 56. The Office of Management comes under the responsibil- ity of the Director of Management who is responsible for all matters pertaining to the organisation and structure of the International Staff, and for advising the Secretary General on civilian staff policy and emoluments through- out the Organisation. He is charged with the preparation, presentation and management of the International Staff budget. He supervises the activities of the Pensions Com- putation Unit and of the Management Advisory Unit, which has responsibility for advising the Secretary Gen- eral on all matters related to organisation, work methods, procedures and manpower. The Deputy Director of Management is responsible for the general administration of the International Staff in- cluding personnel services, the maintenance of the head- quarters, the provision of conference, interpretation and translation facilities and the production and distribution of internal documents. 57. Office of the Financial Controller The Financial Controller is appointed by the Council and is responsible for the call-up of funds and the control of expenditures within the framework of the Civil and Mili- tary Budgets and in accordance with NATO's financial regulations. 58. Office of the Chairman of the Budget Committees The Chairman of the Budget Committees is provided by one of the member countries. His position is nationally funded in order to maintain the independence of the Budget Committees. He has a small staff provided by the International Secretariat. 59. International Board of Auditors The accounts of the various NATO bodies and those relat- ing to expenditure under NATO's common-funded Infra- structure programme are audited by an International Board of Auditors. The Board is composed of govern- ment officials from auditing bodies in member countries. They have independent status and are selected and remu- nerated by their respective countries. They are appointed by and are responsible to the Council. 60. Production and Logistics Organisations There are a number of Production and Logistics Organisa- tions established by NATO and responsible to the North Atlantic Council for carrying out specific tasks. While there are differences in their mandates, funding, financial authority and management, they all report to a Board of Directors or Steering Committee responsible for supervis- ing their activities. They include the following organisa- tions and agencies: - The Central Europe Operating Agency (CEOA) - responsible for the 24-hour operation of the Central Europe Pipeline System (CEPS) and its storage and transportation facilities. Headquarters: Versailles, France. - The NATO Communications and Information Sys- tems Agency (NACISA) - responsible for the planning and implementation of the NATO integrated Com- munications and Information Systems (NICS). Head- quarters: Brussels, Belgium. - The NATO Air Command and Control Systems Man- agement Agency (NACMA) - responsible for the planning and implementation of a NATO air com- mand and control system supporting all air opera- tions, in place of the former NATO Air Defence Ground Environment (NADGE) system. Head- quarters: Brussels, Belgium. - The NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (NAMSA) - responsible for the logistics support of weapons systems in the national inventories of two or more NATO nations, through the common procure- ment and supply of spare parts and the provision of maintenance and repair facilities. Headquarters: Lux- embourg. - The NATO AEW & C Programme Management Agency (NAPMA) - responsible for the planning and implementation of the NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control System and Modernisation Pro- gramme. Headquarters: Brunssum, The Netherlands. - The NATO EFA Development, Production and Logis- tics Management Agency (NEFMA)/ - responsible for the development, production and logistics aspects of the NATO European Fighter Aircraft. Headquarters: Munich, Germany. - The NATO Multirole Combat Aircraft Development and Production Management Agency (NAMMA)/ - re- sponsible for managing the development and produc- tion of the NATO MRCA (Tornado). Headquarters: Munich, Germany. - NATO Hawk Management Office (NHMO) - respon- sible for product improvement programmes relating to the HAWK surface-to-air missile system. Head- quarters: Rueil-Malmaison, France. - NATO Helicopter for the 1990s (NH90) Design, De- velopment, Production and Logistics Management Organisation (NAHEMO) - responsible for managing the development and production of the NH90. Head- quarters: Aix-en-Provence, France. 61. National Military Representatives The members of the Military Committee (Chiefs of Staff) are represented at NATO Headquarters by senior officers acting as Military Representatives, each supported by a national staff varying in size. The Military Representatives constitute the Military Committee in Permanent Session. France is represented by a Military Mission to the Military Committee. 62. The Military Committee The Military Committee is responsible to the North Atlan- tic Council, Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group for the overall conduct of the military / NEFMA and NAMMA will be merged into a single agency during 1993, following authorisation of the EFA production investment phase. affairs of the Alliance. It provides for the maximum consultation and cooperation between member nations on military matters relating to the Treaty and is the primary source of military advice to the Secretary General and to the North Atlantic Council, Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group. The Presidency of the Military Committee rotates among the nations annually in the order of the English alphabet. The Chairman of the Military Committee chairs both the Chiefs-of-Staff and permanent sessions. He is elected by the Chiefs-of-Staff normally for a three-year term. He is the spokesman and representative of the Committee and directs its day-to-day business. He represents the Military Committee at meetings of the North Atlantic Council, the Defence Planning Committee and the Nu- clear Planning Group, providing advice on military mat- ters. The Chairman is assisted by the Deputy Chairman and by the Director of the International Military Staff. By virtue of his office, the Chairman of the Military Committee also has an important public role and is the senior military spokesman for the Alliance in its contacts with the press and media. He undertakes official visits and representational duties on behalf of the Military Committee both in NATO countries and in countries with which NATO is developing closer contacts on the basis of the dialogue, partnership and cooperation established within the overall framework of the North Atlantic Co- operation Council. The intensification of military con- tacts and cooperative activities taking place include con- sultations of the Military Committee meeting at Chiefs of Staff level with cooperation partners; other meetings of the Military Committee and other military bodies with cooperation partners; further visits and exchanges; and participation by military and civilian representatives from the cooperation countries in courses at the NATO Defense College in Rome and the NATO (SHAPE) School at Oberammergau.
NATO handbook07 uploaded March 25, 1993
63. The International Military Staff The Military Committee is supported by an integrated International Military Staff made up of military personnel seconded from national military establishments and of supporting civilian personnel. Members of the Inter- national Military Staff have a similar status within the Organisation as the International Staff but come under the administrative authority of the Director of the Inter- national Military Staff or the Head of the independent NATO agency within which they are employed. The na- tional military status of personnel seconded from national armed forces is not affected by their temporary second- ment to NATO. The International Military Staff is headed by a Director of three star rank who is nominated by the member nations and is selected by the Military Committee. He may be from any one of the member nations, but he must be of a different nationality from the Chairman of the Military Committee. The Director is assisted by six Assist- ant Directors of flag or general officer rank and the Secretary of the International Military Staff. As the executive agent of the Military Committee, the International Military Staff is tasked with ensuring that the policies and decisions of the Military Committee are implemented as directed. In addition, the International Military Staff prepares plans, initiates studies and recom- mends policy on matters of a military nature referred to NATO or to the Military Committee by national or NATO authorities, commanders or agencies. In the framework of the Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooper- ation established by the North Atlantic Cooperation Council, and the work plan adopted by the Military Committee at its first meeting in Cooperation Session, the IMS is also actively involved in the process of co- operation with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. 64. Organisation of the International Military Staff The organisation of the International Military Staff is as follows: The Intelligence Division is responsible for assessing the strengths and disposition of military forces which could represent a risk to NATO's security interests and for keep- ing the Military Committee, the Council and Defence Planning Committee informed of developments. The Divi- sion coordinates the production and dissemination of NATO agreed intelligence, including intelligence policy and basic intelligence documents. NATO has no independ- ent intelligence gathering function or capacity of its own but acts as a central coordinating body to collate and disseminate intelligence provided by national authorities. The Plans and Policy Division serves as the focal point for all policy and planning matters of specific interest to the Military Committee. This includes providing staff support to the Military Committee in military matters concerning the NATO strategic concept, politico-military matters, long-term conceptual thinking, military contacts with cooperation partners and arms control and disarma- ment. The Division also participates on behalf of the Military Committee in NATO's defence planning process; and develops and represents the views of the Military Committee and the Major NATO Commanders on mili- tary policy matters in various NATO forums. The Operations Division provides staff support to the Military Committee in matters concerning current opera- tional plans; the NATO force posture and the organisa- tional structure of NATO Commands and military head- quarters; the military contribution to the management of contingency reactions to international crises where NATO interests are involved; the promotion and coordination of multinational training and exercises; and the coordination of efforts towards an effective NATO electronic warfare operational capability and associated training and exer- cises. The Operations Division also serves as the focal point between the NATO Military Authorities and the nations in developing plans, programmes and procedures for conventional arms control verification and implemen- tation. The Logistics and Resources Division is responsible to the Military Committee for logistics, infrastructure, finan- cial and manpower matters. The Division acts as the focal point for staffing and coordinating all military planning and management matters in these areas and liaises with NATO Civil Emergency Planning Committees and Agencies concerning civil support for the military side. The Communications and Information Systems Division provides staff support to the Military Committee on NATO military policy and operational requirements related to NATO Communications and Information Sys- tems, including communications and computer security, leasing of PTT services, military frequency management and interoperability of tactical communications. The Divi- sion also provides support to the NATO Communications and Information Systems Committee, and to the Brussels- based specialised Military Telecommunications and Com- munications and Information Systems (CIS) Agencies. The Armaments and Standardization Division provides staff support to the Military Committee on matters con- cerning the development and assessment of NATO mili- tary policy and procedures for armaments and related standardization activities and acts as the focal point for staffing and coordination of military needs in these areas. The Division is also the focal point within the Inter- national Military Staff for all air defence matters. The Secretariat supports the Military Committee and provides administrative support to the divisions within the International Military Staff. 65. The Role of Allied Military Forces The major changes in the security environment have enhanced the role of political dialogue and cooperation and increased the scope for resolving crises by political means. The primary role of Alliance military forces, namely to guarantee the security and territorial integrity of member states, remains unchanged. However, in the new strategic environment this role must be fulfilled in a manner which takes account of diverse and multi-direc- tional risks rather than a single threat. The organisation of Alliance forces is designed to ensure that in fulfilling this role they remain fully capable of performing the different functions which could be required of them whatever the situation - peace, crisis or war. Their role in peace is to guard against risks to the security of Alliance members; to contribute towards the maintenance of stability and balance in Europe; and to ensure that peace is preserved. Secondly, in the event of crises which might lead to a military threat to the security of Alliance members, their role is to be able to comple- ment and reinforce political actions and contribute to the management of such crises and their peaceful resolution. They therefore have to have the capability to respond in a measured and timely fashion in such circumstances. Thirdly, since the possibility of war cannot be ruled out altogether however unlikely it might be, Alliance forces have to provide the essential insurance against poten- tial risks, at the minimum level necessary to prevent war of any kind and, should aggression occur, to restore peace. The maintenance of an adequate military capability and clear preparedness to act collectively in the common defence therefore remain central to the Alliance's security objectives. The collective nature of Allied defence is embod- ied in practical arrangements that enable the Allies to benefit from the political, military and resource advantages of collective defence. These arrangements are based on an integrated military structure and cooperation and coordina- tion agreements between the members states. Key features of the integrated structure include collective force planning; common operational planning; multinational formations; the stationing of forces outside home territory, where appropriate on a mutual basis; crisis management and reinforcement arrangements; procedures for consultation; common standards and procedures for equipment, training and logistics; joint and combined exercises; and infrastruc- ture, armaments and logistics cooperation. All member countries assign forces to the Integrated Military Command Structure with the exception of Iceland (which has no military forces) and France and Spain, to which separate cooperation and coordination arrangements apply. 66. The Integrated Military Command Structure The strategic area covered by the North Atlantic Treaty is currently divided among three Major NATO Commands (European, Atlantic and Channel) and a Regional Plan- ning Group for Canada and the United States. However changes to the Alliance's integrated military command structure are being introduced in order to adapt it to present day needs and to enable NATO forces to meet the requirements of the new Strategic Concept. As a first major step, NATO Defence Ministers decided in December 1991 to reduce the number of Major NATO Commands within the new structure from three to two - European and Atlantic. They also decided to create three Major Subordinate Commands within Allied Command Europe, responsible for the Southern, Central and Northwest regions. Other measures, concerning the organisation of the Central Region in particular, were also announced. These decisions, many of which are subject to further detailed planning, will be implemented gradually. The Major NATO Commanders are responsible for the development of defence plans for their respective areas, for the determination of force requirements and for the deployment and exercise of the forces under their com- mand. Their reports and recommendations regarding the forces assigned to them and their logistic support are referred to the NATO Military Committee. The Major NATO Commanders are also responsible for the develop- ment and conduct of their military contacts with co- operation partners. 67. Allied Command Europe (ACE) Headquarters: SHAPE at Casteau near Mons, Belgium The task of Allied Command Europe (ACE) is to safe- guard the area extending from the northern tip of Norway to Southern Europe, including the whole of the Mediter- ranean, and from the Atlantic coastline to the eastern border of Turkey. This equates to nearly two million square kilometres of land, more than three million square kilome- tres of sea, and a population of about 320 million people. The military task of ACE is to contribute, along with the forces of the other Major NATO Commands, to the defence of the above area. In the event of crisis, the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe becomes responsi- ble for implementing military measures to preserve the security, or restore the integrity, of Allied Command Europe within the framework of the authority given to him by the Council or Defence Planning Committee. 68. The Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (SACEUR) SACEUR is responsible for preparing defence plans for the area under his command and ensuring the combat efficiency of the forces assigned to his command; making recommendations to the Military Committee on matters likely to improve the organisation of his command; set- ting down standards for organising, training, equipping, maintaining and sustaining the forces he commands; and conducting exercises and evaluations to ensure that these forces form a unified and capable force for the collective defence of NATO territory. In the event of war, SACEUR would control all land, sea and air operations in his area. SACEUR makes recommendations to NATO's political and military authorities on any military matter which might affect his ability to carry out his responsibilities and he has direct access to the Chiefs-of-Staff, the De- fence Ministers and Heads of Government of the NATO nations. Like the Chairman of the Military Committee, the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, also has an impor- tant public profile and is the senior military spokesman for SHAPE. Through his own activities and those of his public information staff he maintains regular contacts with the press and media and undertakes official visits within NATO countries and in the countries with which NATO is develop- ing dialogue, cooperation and partnership. The headquarters of Allied Command Europe is the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). The following subordinate commands are currently responsible to the Supreme Allied Commander Europe: (a) Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH): Kolsas, Norway. This Command comprises: Allied Forces North Norway; Allied Forces South Norway; and Allied Forces Baltic Approaches. (b) Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT): Brunssum, the Netherlands. This Command comprises: Northern Army Group; Central Army Group; Allied Air Forces Central Europe; 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force; and 4th Allied Tactical Air Force. (c) Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH): Naples, Italy. This Command comprises: Allied Land Forces South- ern Europe; Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe; Allied Air Forces Southern Europe; Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe; Naval Striking and Support Forces Southern Europe. (d) The UK Air Forces Command (CINCUKAIR): High Wycombe, United Kingdom. (e) The Allied Command Europe Mobile Force (AMF): Heidelberg, Germany. (f) The Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAV- FORMED). (g) The NATO Airborne Early Warning Force: Geilen- kirchen, Germany (The NAEW Force is under the operational command of the three Major NATO Com- manders, SACEUR, SACLANT and CINCHAN. SACEUR is their Executive Agent.) (h) The NATO (SHAPE) School at Oberammergau. The organisation of the subordinate command struc- ture of Allied Command Europe described above is cur- rently undergoing review. 69. Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) Allied Command Atlantic extends from the North Pole to the Tropic of Cancer and from the coastal waters of North America to those of Europe and Africa, including Portugal, but not including the Channel and the British Isles. The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT), like the Supreme Allied Commander Europe, receives his directions from the Military Commit- tee. The headquarters of ACLANT are at Norfolk, Vir- ginia, USA. 70. The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) The Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic prepares de- fence plans for his commands, conducts joint and com- bined training exercises, sets training standards and deter- mines the establishment of units; and advises NATO mili- tary authorities on his strategic requirements. The primary task of Allied Command Atlantic is to contribute to security in the whole Atlantic area by safeguarding the Allies' sea lines of communication, sup- porting land and amphibious operations, and protecting the deployment of the Alliance's sea-based nuclear deter- rent. Like SACEUR, SACLANT has direct access to Chiefs- of-Staff, Defence Ministers and Heads of Government. The following subordinate commands are currently responsible to the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic: - the Western Atlantic Command, comprising a Sub- marine Force Western Atlantic Area Command; an Ocean Sub-Area Command; a Canadian Atlantic Sub-Area Command; and the Bermuda and Green- land Island Commands; - the Eastern Atlantic Command, comprising Maritime Air Eastern Atlantic Area; Northern Sub-Area; Mari- time Air Northern Sub-Area; Central Sub-Area; Mari- time Air Central Sub-Area; Submarine Forces Eastern Atlantic Area; and the Island Commands of Iceland and the Faeroes; - the Striking Fleet Atlantic Command, comprising a Carrier Striking Force, consisting of the Carrier Strik- ing Group, the Anti-Submarine Warfare Group and an Amphibious Force; - the Submarines Allied Command Atlantic; - the Iberian Atlantic Command, including the Island Commands of Madeira and of the Azores; - the Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFOR- LANT). 71. Allied Command Channel (ACCHAN) The Channel Command extends from the Southern North Sea through the English Channel. The Headquarters of the Allied Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) are located at Northwood, in the United Kingdom. Its task is to control and protect merchant shipping and contrib- ute to overall defence and deterrence. 72. The Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN) In the event of aggression CINCHAN would be responsible for establishing and maintaining control of the Channel area, supporting operations in adjacent commands, and cooperating with SACEUR in the air defence of the Chan- nel. The forces available for these tasks are predominantly naval, but include maritime airforces. CINCHAN's subordinate commanders include Com- mander Allied Maritime Air Force, Channel; Commander Nore Sub-Area Channel; Commander Plymouth Sub- Area, Channel; and Commander Benelux Sub-Area, Channel. CINCHAN also has under his command the NATO Standing Naval Force Channel (STANAVFOR- CHAN), a permanent force mainly comprising mine countermeasure vessels. A Channel Committee consisting of the naval Chiefs- of-Staff of Belgium, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom serves as an advisory and consultative body to the Commander-in-Chief, Channel. Both SACEUR and SACLANT have offical represent- atives at NATO Headquarters in Brussels (SACEUREP and SACLANTREPEUR) to provide liaison with NATO and national authorities. SACLANTREPEUR also acts as representative for CINCHAN when required. The organisation of the subordinate command struc- ture of Allied Command Atlantic and Allied Command Channel is currently undergoing review in the light of the decision taken by NATO Defence Ministers in December 1991 to reduce the number of Major NATO Commands from three to two. 73. Canada-United States Regional Planning Group The Canada-US Regional Planning Group, which covers the North American area, develops and recommends to the Military Committee plans for the defence of the Canada-US Region. It meets alternately in one of these two countries. 74. Forces Available to NATO The forces of member countries available to NATO's inte- grated military command structure are essentially in two categories: those which come under the operational com- mand or operational control of a Major NATO Com- mander when required, in accordance with specified proce- dures or at prescribed times; and those which nations have agreed to assign to the operational command or operational control of a Major NATO Commander at a future date. Some of the above terms have precise military defini- tions. The terms ``command'' and ``control'', for example, relate to the nature of the authority exercised by military commanders over the forces assigned to them. When used internationally, these terms do not necessarily have the same implications as they do when used in a purely national context. In assigning forces to NATO, member nations assign operational command or operational con- trol as distinct from full command over all aspects of the military operations and administration of those forces. These latter aspects continue to be a national responsibil- ity and remain under national control. Broadly speaking, NATO's military forces will in future come into three categories: immediate and rapid reaction forces, main defence forces, and augmentation forces. Adjustments which are being made will continue to reflect the strictly defensive nature of the Alliance and will include reductions in their overall size and in some cases in the level of readiness which they maintain, enhanced flexibility and mobility and an assured augmentation capability. As in the past, the Alliance's political authori- ties will continue to exercise close control over the deploy- ment and employment of these forces at all times. In general, national forces remain under full national command in peacetime. Exceptions to this rule are the integrated staffs in the various NATO military head- quarters; certain air defence units on constant alert such as the units manning the Airborne Early Warning and Control Force (AWACS); some communications units; and four small multinational forces created for specific tasks. These are described below. 75. The ACE Mobile Force (AMF) In 1960 NATO formed a small, multinational task force which could be sent at short notice to any threatened part of Allied Command Europe to demonstrate the solidarity of the Alliance and its ability and determination to defend itself against aggression. The ACE Mobile Force or ``AMF'' is composed of land and air forces from Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States. Until assembled at the request of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), most units assigned to it are stationed in their home countries. United States units are provided by the US Forces already stationed in Europe. The AMF is a balanced force made up of infantry battalions, artillery batteries and supporting units, with the fighting strength of a brigade group of about 5,000 men. The force can be deployed rapidly to any part of Allied Command Europe and is trained and tested every year in tough, realistic exercises held in both the northern and southern regions of Europe. Since its creation the AMF has regularly participated in multinational exercises but in January 1991 it was deployed for the first time in an operational role when elements of the force were sent to south-east Turkey during the Gulf War in order to demon- strate NATO's collective solidarity and determination in the face of a potential threat to Allied territory. The Headquarters of AMF's land component are located near Heidelberg in Germany. 76. Standing Naval Forces The Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFOR- LANT) was established in 1967. Composed of destroyer or frigate class ships drawn from the navies of member countries, this force comes under the command of the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT). Ships from Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States form the permanent mem- bership of the force. They are joined periodically by naval units from Belgium, Denmark, Norway and Portugal. The force carries out a programme of scheduled exercises, manoeuvres, and port visits and can be rapidly deployed to a threatened area in times of crisis or tension. The Standing Naval Force Channel (STANAVFOR- CHAN) was commissioned in May 1973. It consists of mine countermeasure vessels and operates under the Command of the Allied Commander-in-Chief, Channel (CINCHAN). Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom are regular contributors to the force. Danish, Norwegian and United States ships also join the force from time to time. A Naval On-Call Force for the Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED) was created in 1969. Similar in pur- pose to STANAVFORLANT and STANAVFORCHAN, this naval force was assigned to the Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. It was not permanently in being and assembled only when called upon. Between exercises, normally twice a year, the ships remained under national command. Italy, Greece, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States normally contributed ships to the force and units of other nations exercised with the force from time to time. As part of the reorganisation of Allied forces required to meet the objectives of the Alliance's Strategic Concept, NAVOCFORMED was replaced by a Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAVFORMED) on 30 April 1992. The new force is composed of destroyers and frigates contrib- uted by Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. 77. Reserve Forces In accordance with the Alliance's Strategic Concept, Allied forces must be structured in a way which enables their military capability to be built up when necessary by reinforcement, reconstituting forces or mobilising re- serves. Reserve forces therefore play an important role in the whole spectrum of NATO's defence structure and in the event of crisis, would be required to take up positions and carry out tasks alongside regular forces.
NATO handbook08 uploaded March 25, 1993
78. Military Agencies and Organisations The Military Committee is charged with the direction of a number of NATO military agencies. These include: 79. The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development (AGARD) The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Devel- opment (AGARD) was formed in 1952 and became an agency under the Military Committee in 1966. Its task is to foster and improve the interchange of information relating to aerospace research and development between the NATO nations in order to ensure that the advances made by one nation are available to the others. AGARD also provides scientific and technical advice and assistance to the NATO Military Committee in the field of aerospace research and development, with particular regard to mili- tary applications. The Headquarters of AGARD is located in Paris. 80. The Military Agency for Standardization (MAS) Organised in London in 1951, the MAS is the principal military agency for standardization within NATO. Its pur- pose is to facilitate operational, procedural and materiel standardization among member nations to enable NATO forces to operate together in the most effective manner. Cooperation between the international technical expert groups and the agency in regard to defence equipment is effected through the NATO Standardization Group and by liaison with the International Staff and the Inter- national Military Staff. Since January 1970 the MAS has been housed within NATO Headquarters in Brussels. 81. The NATO Electronic Warfare Advisory Committee (NEWAC) NEWAC was established in 1966 to support the Military Committee, the Major NATO Commanders (MNCs) and the nations by acting as a specialist multinational body to promote on a tri-service basis an effective NATO elec- tronic warfare capability. It monitors national and MNC progress in implementing measures which improve NATO's electronic warfare capabilities. NEWAC is composed of representatives of each NATO country and of the MNCs. The Chairman of the Committee and the Secretary are permanently assigned to the Operations Division of the International Military Staff (IMS). 82. THE EURO/NATO Training Group Responsibility within NATO for consolidation of training on a multinational basis is vested in the EURO/NATO Training Group (ENTG). The Group's objectives are to improve and expand existing, and to initiate new, multi- national training arrangements between member nations. The ENTG reports to the NATO Military Committee and to the EUROGROUP. 83. The Military Committee Meteorological Group (MCMG) The task of the MCMG is to advise the Military Committee on meteorological matters affecting NATO and to make appropriate recommendations. The MCMG also acts as the coordinating agency of the Military Committee for all military meteorological policies, procedures and tech- niques within NATO. 84. Military Telecommunications and CIS Agencies Six specialised Military Telecommunications and Commu- nications and Information Systems (CIS) Agencies provide the Military Committee with expert technical advice on military matters within their own fields of competence. These are: - Allied Communications and Computer Security Agency (ACCSA). - Allied Long Lines Agency (ALLA). - Allied Radio Frequency Agency (ARFA). - Allied Tactical Communications Agency (ATCA). - Allied Data Systems Interoperability Agency (ADSIA). - Allied Naval Communications Agency (ANCA). The permanent staffs of these bodies, with the excep- tion of ANCA staff located in London, are drawn from the NATO International Military Staff and are collocated in Brussels. In addition, the Military Committee is advised on CIS matters by the NATO CIS Committee (NACISC) which also reports to the North Atlantic Council and Defence Planning Committee. The NACISC is assisted in its work by the Communications Systems Working Group (CSWG) and Information Systems Working Group (ISWG). 85. The SHAPE Technical Centre The SHAPE Technical Centre is an international military organisation under the policy direction of the Supreme Allied Commander Europe. Its task is to provide scientific and technical advice and assistance to SHAPE and to undertake research, studies, investigations, development projects and operational tests for Allied Command Europe. Initially limited to air defence problems, its scope was widened in 1963 to cover all military matters pertain- ing to Allied Command Europe. Its current programme is directed in particular towards three major areas of concern to Allied Command Europe: force capability and force structure, including the effects of new weapons technology; command and control, in- cluding application of automated data processing; and communications, including concept formulation, systems engineering and operations support. 86. The SACLANT Undersea Research Centre The SACLANT Undersea Research Centre was commis- sioned in 1959 at La Spezia, Italy and formally became a NATO military organisation in 1963. The task of the Centre is to provide scientific and technical advice and assistance to SACLANT in the field of anti-submarine war- fare and mine countermeasures. The Centre carries out research and limited development (but not engineering or manufacturing) in these fields, including oceanography, operational research and analysis, advisory and consul- tancy work; and exploratory research. In July 1986, under the auspices of SACLANTCEN, the first ship to be funded jointly by NATO countries, the 3,200-ton undersea re- search vessel ALLIANCE, was officially launched at La Spezia. The ship became operational in May 1988. 87. The NATO Defense College The NATO Defense College was established in 1951 in Paris and moved to Rome in 1966. Under the direction of the Military Committee, assisted by an independent Advisory Board, the College provides courses for officers and civilian officials from member countries expected to be appointed to key posts within NATO or in their national administrations. Since 1991 provision has also been made for participation in courses at the NATO Defense College by officers and officials from the Alliance's cooperation partners. The Commandant of the College is an officer of at least Lieutenant General rank appointed for a three year period. The Commandant is assisted by a Faculty comprising one civilian and two military deputies and at least eight faculty advisers. Courses include lectures and discussions, team studies, committee work and instruc- tional tours to the United States and Canada and to European member countries. Course requirements in- clude competence in a specialised field and a thorough knowledge of English or French.
NATO handbook09 uploaded March 25, 1993
PART IV INTERLOCKING INSTITUTIONS ``The challenges we will face in this new Europe cannot be comprehensively addressed by one institution alone, but only in a framework of interlocking institutions tying together the countries of Europe and North America. Conse- quently, we are working towards a new European security architecture in which NATO, the CSCE, the European Community, the WEU and the Council of Europe comple- ment each other. Regional frameworks of cooperation will also be important. This interaction will be of the greatest significance in preventing instability and divisions that could result from various causes, such as economic disparities and violent nationalism.'' Extract from the Rome Declaration on Peace and Cooperation issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Rome on 7-8 November 1991. 88. THE CONFERENCE ON SECURITY AND COOPERATION IN EUROPE (CSCE) The Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (CSCE) is a process involving all European States, all members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), Georgia, Canada and the United States. Launched in 1972, the CSCE process led to the adoption of the Helsinki Final Act (1975). This document en- compassed a wide range of commitments on principles governing relations between participating states, on measures designed to build confidence between them, on respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms and on cooperation in economic, cultural, technical and scientific fields. In accordance with the Helsinki Final Act it was decided to continue and deepen the CSCE process. Follow-up meetings were held in Belgrade (1977-1978), Madrid (1980-1983), Vienna (1986-1989) and Helsinki (March- July 1992). Meetings of experts have also taken place on a number of different topics. The CSCE has provided a pan-European/transatlantic framework for negotiations in the field of security. The participating states agreed in 1986 in Stockholm on a Document on Confidence and Security Building Meas- ures (CSBMs), completed and improved in 1990 by the Vienna Document on CSBMs and subsequently by the Vienna 1992 Document. On 19 November 1990, at the opening of the CSCE Summit in Paris, 22 participating states signed the far reaching CFE Treaty which limits conventional forces in Europe from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains. On 21 November 1990, the CSCE Summit Meeting of Heads of State and Government of the then 34 participat- ing states adopted the Charter of Paris for a New Europe. The Charter established the Council of Foreign Ministers of the CSCE as the central forum for regular political consultations; the Committee of Senior Officials, which reviews current issues, prepares the work of the Council and carries out its decisions; and three permanent institu- tions of the CSCE, namely the Secretariat in Prague; the Conflict Prevention Centre in Vienna; and the Office for Free Elections in Warsaw (subsequently renamed Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR)). The new institutions of the CSCE started work in early 1991. On 19 June 1991, the Berlin Meeting of the CSCE Council of Foreign Affairs accepted Albania as a new participating state and adopted an emergency mechanism to deal with crisis situations in the area covered by the CSCE. On 10 September 1991, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs meeting in Moscow accepted Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania as participating states. All members of the Commonwealth of Independent States (i.e. all republics of the former Soviet Union less Georgia) became mem- bers on 30 January 1992. Croatia, Slovenia and Georgia became members on 24 March 1992. The decisions relating to security cooperation taken at the conclusion of the Follow-Up Meeting in July 1992 by CSCE Heads of State and Government represented a significant qualitative improvement in the consultative and negotiating machinery available to the participating states. In the concluding document of the Helsinki Summit Meeting (``The Challenges of Change'') the crea- tion was announced, inter alia, of a permanent CSCE Forum for Security Cooperation to commence its activi- ties from 22 September 1992 in Vienna. The Helsinki Document established the objectives of the Forum, under whose auspices new negotiations on arms control, disar- mament and confidence- and security-building will take place; and set out the constitutional arrangements for the work of the Forum including the creation of a Special Committee and a Consultative Committee. The participat- ing states also agreed on a fourteen-point Programme for Immediate Action addressing, inter alia, the development of the Vienna Document 1992, exchange of military infor- mation, non-proliferation, regional issues, conflict preven- tion and verification issues. Further information: CSCE Secretariat, Thunovska 12, Mala Strana, 110 00 Prague 1, Czechoslovakia. Tel: 42- 2-311 97 93 - 96; Fax: 42-2-34 6215. 89. THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY (EC) The European Community was established on the basis of the Treaty of Rome signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. In 1973 they were joined by Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom, in 1981 by Greece and in 1986 by Spain and Portugal. The European Community (EC) has developed from the merger of the European Coal and Steel Community, founded on 18 April 1951, with the European Economic Community and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) founded in 1957 under the Treaty of Rome. Intergovernmental Conferences on Economic and Mon- etary Union and Political Union took place from 15 December 1990 to 11 December 1991. At the Maastricht European Council on 9 and 10 December 1991, the Heads of State and Government of the Community countries adopted a Treaty on Political Union, and a Treaty on Economic and Monetary Union, which together form the Treaty on European Union. The Treaty is subject to ratification by all member states. The Treaty on Political Union establishes inter alia a common foreign and security policy governed by specific provisions. The latter include reference to the Western European Union as an integral part of the development of the European Union; and request the WEU to elaborate and implement decisions and actions of the Union which have defence implications. At the meeting of WEU Member States which took place in Maastricht at the same time as the meeting of the European Council, a declaration was issued inviting members of the European Union to accede to the WEU or to become observers, and inviting other European mem- bers of NATO to become associate members of the WEU. The Treaty on European Union also makes provision for a further inter-governmental conference to evaluate achievement made in both spheres; and for a report evaluating the progress made and experience gained in the field of foreign and security policy to be presented to the European Council in 1996. Hungary, Poland and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic have signed association agreements with the EC. Talks are currently underway with Bulgaria and Romania. Austria, Cyprus, Finland, Malta, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and Turkey have formally applied for membership. The main institutions of the Community are the Coun- cil of Ministers, the Commission, the European Parlia- ment and the Court of Justice. The Council consists of one Minister from each member state. It acts mainly on proposals from the Commission, a policy planning and executive body whose 17 members, each appointed for four years by the common consent of the member govern- ments, act in the interests of the Community as a whole. As well as drawing up policy proposals for approval by the Council, the Commission also acts as the guardian of Community laws and ensures their application in all member states. The European Parliament has 518 members. Until 1979 these were nominated by national legislative bodies from among their own members. Direct elections to the Parlia- ment commenced in June 1979. The Parliament considers proposals from the Commission and has the right to question individual Commissioners and, ultimately to dismiss the Commission itself. These elements of demo- cratic control have gradually been extended and the Parlia- ment now has increased control over the Community budget. The final arbiter on Community law is the Court of Justice. Its 12 judges, one from each member state, settle disputes over the interpretation and application of Com- munity law and have the power to overturn decisions deemed to be contrary to the Treaties establishing the Community. Its judgements are binding on the Commis- sion, on national governments, on firms and individuals. A major Community aim is greater integration of the economies of its member states. The first step in this direction was the introduction of a customs union, involv- ing the elimination of the tariffs and quotas on trade between member countries and the introduction of a common tariff in dealings with non-member countries. Establishment of a common agricultural policy was an important aspect in setting up the customs union. In 1985, the Commission proposed an ambitious pro- gramme of legislative proposals designated to create a single European market enabling goods, services, capital and people to move freely within and between member states. The Single European Act creating the Internal Market comes into effect at the beginning of 1993 on completion of this programme. In the international context, agreements have been made between the Community and other countries of the Mediterranean area, in the Middle East, in South America and in Asia. Sixty-eight African, Caribbean and Pacific countries now belong to the Lome Convention. Relations are being developed with the EFTA countries and with the newly democratic countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The Community also maintains a con- tinuing dialogue on political and economic issues of mutual interest and engages in direct negotiations on trade and investment issues with the United States, par- ticularly in the context of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). Since the outbreak of the crisis in the former Yugosla- via and the disintegration of the federal state, the Euro- pean Community has played an important role in efforts to bring about peace to the region and to channel humani- tarian aid to the war-stricken communities of the country. The London Conference on Yugoslavia held in August 1992, chaired jointly by the Secretary General of the United Nations and by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (as current President of the European Council), represented a new departure for the EC in the field of foreign policy and the first combined EC-United Nations international operation. Senior officials nominated by the United Nations and the EC are acting jointly as peace negotiators and chairmen of the continuing Geneva Con- ference on the former Yugoslavia established at the London Conference. Further information: The Director-General for Infor- mation and Communication (DG 10), 200 rue de la Loi, 1049 Brussels, Belgium, Tel: 299 11 11; Fax: 235 01 38 39 040. 90. THE WESTERN EUROPEAN UNION (WEU) The Western European Union has existed in its present form since 1954 and today includes nine European coun- tries - Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United King- dom. It has a Council and Secretariat currently based in London and a Parliamentary Assembly in Paris. The WEU has its origins in the Brussels Treaty of economic, social and cultural collaboration and collective self-de- fence of 1948, signed by Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. With the signature of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1949, the exer- cise of the military responsibilities of the Brussels Treaty Organisation or Western Union, was transferred to the North Atlantic Alliance. Under the Paris Agreements of 1954, the Federal Re- public of Germany and Italy acceded to the Brussels Treaty and the Organisation was renamed the Western European Union. The latter continued in being in fulfil- ment of the conditions and tasks laid down in the Paris Agreements. The Western European Union was reactivated in 1984 with a view to developing a common European defence identity through cooperation among its members in the security field and to strengthening the European pillar of the North Atlantic Alliance. Meeting in The Hague in October 1987, the Ministerial Council of the Western European Union, made up of Foreign and Defence Ministers of the nine member coun- tries, adopted a ``Platform on European Security Inter- ests'' in which they solemnly affirmed their determination both to strengthen the European pillar of NATO and to provide an integrated Europe with a security and defence dimension. The Platform defined the Western European Union's relations with NATO and with other organisa- tions, as well as the enlargement of the WEU and the conditions for the further development of its role as a forum for regular discussion of defence and security issues affecting Europe. In August 1987 during the Iran-Iraq War, Western European Union experts met in The Hague to consider joint action in the Gulf to ensure freedom of navigation in the oil shipping lanes of the region; and in October 1987 WEU countries met again to coordinate their military presence in the Gulf following attacks on shipping in the area. Following the ratification of the Treaty of Accession signed in November 1988, Portugal and Spain became members of the Western European Union, in accordance with the decisions taken the previous year to facilitate its enlargement. A further step was taken in November 1989 when the Council decided to create an Institute for Secu- rity Studies, based in Paris, with the task of assisting in the development of a European security identity and in the implementation of The Hague Platform. At the end of 1990 and during the Gulf War in January and February 1991, coordinated action took place among WEU nations contributing forces and other forms of support to the coalition forces involved in the liberation of Kuwait. A number of decisions were taken by the European Council at Maastricht on 9-10 December 1991 on the common foreign and security policy of the European Union, and by the member states of the Western Euro- pean Union on the role of the WEU and its relations with the European Union and the Atlantic Alliance. These decisions were welcomed by the North Atlantic Council when it met in Ministerial Session on 19 Decem- ber. They included extending invitations to members of the European Union to accede to the WEU or to seek observer status, as well as invitations to European member states of NATO to become associate members; agreement on the objective of the WEU of building up the organisation in stages, as the defence component of the European Union, and on elaborating and implementing decisions and actions of the Union with defence implica- tions; agreement on the objective of strengthening the European pillar of the Atlantic Alliance and the role, responsibilities and contributions of WEU member states in the Alliance; affirmation of the intention of the WEU to act in conformity with positions adopted in the Alliance; the strengthening of the WEU's operational role; and the relocation of the WEU Council and Secretariat from London to Brussels. A number of other proposals are also under examination, including a new role for the WEU in armaments cooperation. Provisions established in accordance with the decisions reached at Maastricht will be re-examined in 1996 in the light of the progress and experience acquired, including the evolution of the relationship between the WEU and the Atlantic Alliance. On 21 May 1992, the Council of the Western European Union held its first formal meeting with the North Atlan- tic Council at NATO Headquarters. In accordance with decisions taken by both organisations, the meeting was held to discuss the relationship between them and ways of strengthening practical cooperation as well as establish- ing closer working ties between them. In July 1992 the member countries of the WEU decided to make available naval forces for monitoring compliance in the Adriatic with UN Security Council Resolutions against Serbia and Montenegro. Similar measures were also taken by the North Atlantic Council in Ministerial Session in Helsinki on 10 July 1992, in coordination and cooperation with the operation decided by the WEU. Further information: Western European Union, Secretariat-General, 9 Grosvenor Place, London SW1X 7HL. Tel: 071 235 5351; Fax: 071 259 6102. 91. THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE The Council of Europe was set up on 5 May 1949, ``to achieve a greater unity between its members for the purpose of safeguarding and realising the ideals and principles which are their common heritage and facilitat- ing their economic and social progress''. The Council has 27 member countries including Hungary which joined in 1990 and the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic in 1991. Other Central and Eastern European countries have special guest status. Some of the Council's activities are open to non-member states. The organisation is composed of a Committee of Minis- ters, in which agreements are reached on common action by Governments; and a 192-strong Assembly, which makes proposals for new activities and serves, more generally, as a parliamentary forum (Bulgaria, Poland, Romania and Russia have special guest status with the Parliamen- tary Assembly). The Council's overall aim is to maintain the basic principles of human rights, pluralist democracy and the rule of law and enhance the quality of life for European citizens. Around 140 inter-governmental conventions and agree- ments have been concluded by the Council, chief among which are the Convention on Human Rights, the Euro- pean Cultural Convention, and the European Social Char- ter. The organisation further promotes cooperation to improve education; the safeguarding of the urban and natural environment; social services, public health, sport and youth activities; the development of local democracy; the harmonization of legislation, particularly in the light of technical developments, and the prevention of compu- ter crime. Further information: Information Directorate, Council of Europe, BP341, R6-67006 Strasbourg, France, Tel: Strasbourg (88) 412033; Fax: (88) 412780/(88) 412790.
NATO handbook10 uploaded March 25, 1993
PART V OTHER INTER- GOVERNMENTAL AND NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANISATIONS 92. THE NORTH ATLANTIC ASSEMBLY Alliance cohesion is substantially enhanced by the sup- port of freely elected parliamentary representatives. The North Atlantic Assembly (NAA) is the inter-parliamentary forum of the 16 member countries of the Alliance. It brings together European and North American legislators to debate and discuss issues of common interest and concern. The Assembly is completely independent of NATO but constitutes a link between national parliaments and the Alliance which encourages governments to take Alliance concerns into account when framing national legislation. It also acts as a permanent reminder that intergovernmental decisions reached within NATO are ulti- mately dependent on political endorsement in accordance with the due constitutional process of democratically elected parliaments. Delegates to the North Atlantic Assembly are nomi- nated by their parliaments according to their national procedures on the basis of party representation in the parliaments. The Assembly therefore represents a broad spectrum of political opinion. It comprises 188 parlia- mentarians, the size of each country's delegation being mainly determined by the size of its population. The membership is drawn from different political parties but serving members of governments cannot act as delegates. There are five Assembly officers elected each year by delegates in Plenary Session, namely the President, three Vice-Presidents and the Treasurer. A Secretary General is elected every two years by a Standing Committee com- posed of the heads of each delegation. The Assembly meets twice a year in Plenary Session. Meetings are held in national capitals on a rotational basis at the invitation of national parliaments. The Assembly functions through five committees, i.e. Political; Defence and Security; Economic; Scientific and Technical; and Civilian Affairs. These are both study groups and major forums for discussion. The committees study and examine all major contemporary issues arising in their respective fields of interest. They meet regularly throughout the year and report to the Plenary Sessions of the Assembly. The primary purpose of the Assembly is educative and consensus-building. It allows Alliance legislators to convey national preoccupations and concerns and to inform each other of the very different national and regional perspectives that exist on many key issues of mutual interest. Similarly, members of the Assembly are able to use the experience and information gained through participation in its activities when exercising their roles within national parliaments, and thus ensure that Alliance interests and considerations are given maxi- mum visibility in national discussions. The Assembly also constitutes an important touchstone for assessing parlia- mentary and public opinion on Alliance issues and through its deliberations provides a clear indication of public and parliamentary concerns regarding Alliance policies. In this sense the Assembly plays an indirect but important role in policy formation. Recommendations and resolutions of the Assembly are forwarded to na- tional governments, parliaments, other relevant organisa- tions and to the Secretary General of NATO who formu- lates replies based on discussions within the North Atlan- tic Council. Relations between the Assembly and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe were placed on a formal basis in 1990 when parliamentary representatives from these countries were invited to participate in the full range of Assembly activities as ``Associate Delegates''. The Assembly has also organised a number of seminars in which representatives from other countries including Sweden, Finland, Austria, Yugoslavia and Switzerland have also participated. The Assembly is developing a programme of specialised seminars aimed at assisting the development of parliamen- tary democracy in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Commonwealth of Independent States. These will focus on areas where the Assembly has particular competence and experience or, as a multilateral forum, is uniquely placed to make an effective contribution, such as the question of parliamentary oversight and control of de- fence expenditure and of the armed forces. In addition, the Assembly is focussing its efforts and resources on other ways of assisting the development of democracy in Central and Eastern Europe, including the creation of a Special Committee comprising Assembly members and Associate Delegates on an equal basis to discuss and exchange views on security requirements. Further information on the North Atlantic Assembly may be obtained from its International Secretariat - Place du Petit Sablon 3, B-1000 Brussels. Tel.: 513.28.65. 93. THE ATLANTIC TREATY ASSOCIATION (ATA) Voluntary associations affiliated to the Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) support the activities of NATO and of individual governments to promote the objectives of the North Atlantic Treaty. The objectives of the Atlantic Treaty Association are: (a) to educate and inform the public concerning the aims and goals of the North Atlantic Treaty Organis- ation; (b) to conduct research in the various purposes and activities related to the Organisation; (c) to promote the solidarity of the peoples in the North Atlantic area; (d) to develop permanent relations and cooperation between its national member committees or associa- tions. An Atlantic Education Committee (AEC) and an Atlan- tic Association of Young Political Leaders (AAYPL) are active in their own fields. The following national voluntary organisations are members of the ATA: BELGIUM The Belgian Atlantic Association 24 rue des Petits Carmes 1000 Brussels LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg Atlantic Association BP 805 Luxembourg CANADA The Atlantic Council of Canada 6 Hoskin Avenue Toronto Ontario M5S 1H8 NETHERLANDS Netherlands Atlantic Committee Laan van Meerdervoort 96 2517 AR The Hague DENMARK Danish Atlantic Association Ryvangs Alle 1 Postbox 2521 DK-2100 Copenhagen 0 NORWAY Norwegian Atlantic Committee Fridtjof Nansens Plass 6 0160 Oslo 1 FRANCE French Association for the Atlantic Community 185 rue de la Pompe 75116 Paris PORTUGAL Portuguese Atlantic Committee Av. Infante Santo 42, 6e 1300 Lisbon GERMANY The German Atlantic Society Am Burgweiher 12 5300 Bonn 1 SPAIN Spanish Atlantic Association Fernaflor 6-5B. 28014 Madrid GREECE Greek Association for Atlantic and European Cooperation 160A Ioannou Drossopoulou Str 112 56 Athens TURKEY Turkish Atlantic Committee Kuleli Sokak No: 44/1 Gaziosmanpasa 06700 Ankara ICELAND Association of Western Cooperation PO Box 28 121 Reykjavik ITALY Italian Atlantic Committee Piazza di Firenze 27 00186 Rome UNITED KINGDOM The British Atlantic Commitee 154 Buckingham Palace Road London W5 4VB UNITED STATES The Atlantic Council of the United States 1616 H. Street NW Washington DC 20006 >From October 1992 The Atlantic Club of Bulgaria has been associated with the Atlantic Treaty Association as an observer (Address: 29 Slavyanska Street, Sofia 1000). Further information concerning the Atlantic Treaty Association may be obtained from the Secretary General of the ATA at 185, rue de la Pompe, 75116 Paris. 94. THE INTERALLIED CONFEDERATION OF RESERVE OFFICERS (CIOR) The Interallied Confederation of Reserve Officers is a non-governmental, non-political, non-profit organisation. Known by its French acronym CIOR, the Confeder- ation was formed in 1948 by the Reserve Officers Associa- tions of Belgium, France and the Netherlands. All exist- ing national reserve officer associations of NATO- member nations now belong to the Confederation. It represents more than 800,000 reserve officers and aims to inculcate and maintain an interallied spirit among its members and to provide them with information about NATO developments and activities. It also aims to con- tribute to the organisation, administration and training of reserve forces in NATO countries and to improve their motivation, capabilities, interoperability and mutual con- fidence through common and exchange training pro- grammes. The Confederation maintains close liaison with appro- priate national defence organisations and with NATO military authorities and develops international contacts between reserve officers. Its members are active in profes- sional, business, industrial, academic and political circles in their respective countries and contribute individually to the improvement of public understanding of NATO and the strengthening of public support for its policies. The chief executive of the Confederation is an elected President who serves in that office for a period of two years. He is assisted by a Secretary General and an Executive Committee composed of delegates from all national member associations. The head of each national delegation is also a Vice-President of the Confederation. The Interallied Confederation of the Medical Reserve Officers (CIOMR) is affiliated to the CIOR. Member associations of the CIOR: BELGIUM Union Royale Nationale des Officiers de Reserve de Belgique (URNOR/KNVRO-BE) Rue des Petits Carmes 24 B-1000 Bruxelles CANADA The Conference of Defence Associations of Canada (CDA) PO Box 893 Ottawa Ontario K1P 5P9 DENMARK Reserve officers Foreningen i Danmark (ROID) GL. Hovedragt Kastellet, DK-2100 Copenhagen GERMANY Verband der Reservisten der Deutschen Bundeswehr (VdRBw) Pfarrer Byns Strasse 1 D-5300 Bonn - Endenich GREECE The Supreme Pan-Hellenic Federation of Reserve Officers (SPFRO) 100 Solonos Street GR-10680 Athens 144 FRANCE Union Nationale des Officiers de Reserve France (UNOR/FR) 17 Avenue de l'Opera F-75001 Paris LUXEMBOURG Amicale des Anciens Officiers de Reserve Luxembourgeois (ANORL) 124 A Kiem L-8030 Strassen THE NETHERLANDS Koninklijke Vereniging van Nederlandse Reserve Officieren (KVNRO) Postbus 96820 NL-2509 s'Gravenhage NORWAY Norske Reserveoffiserers Forbund (NROF) Oslo Mil. Akershus NO-0015 Oslo 1 SPAIN Federation of Spanish Reserve Associations (FORE) Aerodromo de La Nava Corral de Ayllon Segovia 28018 UNITED KINGDOM The Reserve Forces Association of the United Kingdom (RFA) Centre Block Duke of York's Headquarters Chelsea GB-London SW3 4SG UNITED STATES The Reserve Officers Association of the United States (ROA) 1 Constitution Avenue NE Washington DC 20002 The CIOR and CIOMR have a liaison office at NATO Headquarters situated within the International Military Staff. Further information about the Confederations may be obtained from this office (CIOR/CIOMR Liaison Office, NATO/IMS/P&P, B-1110 Brussels). 95. THE EUROGROUP/ The EUROGROUP is a grouping of European govern- ments within the framework of NATO, open to all Euro- pean members of the Alliance. Its aim is to help strengthen the whole Alliance by seeking to ensure that the European contribution to the common defence is as strong and cohesive as possible. It provides a forum in which European Defence Ministers can exchange views on major political and security issues and foster practical cooperation through the work of specialist sub-groups on tactical communications, logistics, long-term concepts of operation, military medicine, and joint training. Meetings of Defence Ministers take place twice a year, just before the regular half-yearly Ministerial session of NATO's Defence Planning Committee. They include a working dinner which provides an important opportunity for informal discussion. The chairmanship of the EURO- GROUP rotates each year. The work is overseen and Ministerial meetings prepared by an ad hoc committee of EUROGROUP Ambassadors at NATO Headquarters. For day-to-day affairs, the main working body is the Staff Group, which is composed of officials from the national delegations at NATO Headquarters. A Secre- tariat is provided by the United Kingdom. The EUROGROUP regularly sends panels to North America in order to increase understanding of the scale of the European defence effort and arranges for North American legislators and journalists to see European defence forces at first hand. It also organises an annual conference in Washington and an annual seminar hosted by the chairing nation. 96. THE INDEPENDENT EUROPEAN PROGRAMME GROUP/ The Independent European Programme Group (IEPG), formed in 1976, is the forum through which all European member nations of NATO (except Iceland) discuss and formulate policies designed to achieve greater cooperation in armaments procurement. The Group meets at the level of Defence Ministers and National Armaments Directors and works through three Panels. Panel I, chaired by Norway, is responsible for the harmonisation of opera- tional requirements and the identification of opportunities for collaboration. Panel II, chaired by France, overseas research and technology cooperation and is chiefly con- cerned with managing the EUCLID programme (Euro- pean Cooperation for the Long-term in Defence). Panel III, chaired by Germany, is responsible for defence equip- ment market matters including the liberalisation of de- fence trade in Europe. The Panels report to biannual meetings of National Armaments Directors, who report in turn to Defence Ministers. The latter meet at least once a year. The chairmanship of the IEPG rotates every two years be- tween member states. The current chair nation, Belgium, is due to be succeeded by Denmark at the beginning of 1993. The IEPG is not a formal body and apart from a small administrative Permanent Secretariat based in Lisbon, the work of the Group falls to the nations who share the duties between them. / The future roles of the Eurogroup and the IEPG are under discussion.
NATO APPENDICES uploaded March 25, 1993handbook11
APPENDIX I 97. THE NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY Washington DC, 4th April 1949 The Parties to this Treaty reaffirm their faith in the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and their desire to live in peace with all peoples and all governments. They are determined to safeguard the freedom, common heritage and civilisation of their peoples, founded on the principles of democracy, individual liberty and the rule of law. They seek to promote stability and well-being in the North Atlanticarea. They are resolved to unite their efforts for collective defence and for the preservation of peace and security. They therefore agree to this North Atlantic Treaty: ARTICLE 1 The Parties undertake, as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations, to settle any international dispute in which they may be involved by peaceful means in such a manner that international peace and security and justice are not endangered, and to refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force in any manner inconsistent with the purposes of the United Nations. ARTICLE 2 The Parties will contribute toward the further development of peaceful and friendly international relations by strengthening their free institutions, by bringing about a better understanding of the principles upon which these institutions are founded, and by promoting conditions of stability and well-being. They will seek to eliminate conflict in their international economic policies and will encourage economic collaboration between any or all of them. ARTICLE 3 In order more effectively to achieve the objectives of this Treaty, the Parties, separately and jointly, by means of continuous and effective self-help and mutual aid, will maintain and develop their individual and collective capacity to resist armed attack. ARTICLE 4 The Parties will consult together whenever, in the opinion of any of them, the territorial integrity, political independence or security of any of the Parties is threatened. ARTICLE 5 The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all, and consequently they agree that, if such an armed attack occurs, each of them, in exercise of the right of individual or collective selfdefence recognised by Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, will assist the Party or Parties so attacked by taking forthwith, individually, and in concert with the other Parties, such action as it deems necessary, including the use of armed force, to restore and maintain the security of the North Atlantic area. Any such armed attack and all measures taken as a result thereof shall immediately be reported to the Security Council. Such measures shall be terminated when the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to restore and maintain international peace and security. ARTICLE 6 For the purpose of Article 5, an armed attack on one or more of the Parties is deemed to include an armed attack: - on the territory of any of the Parties in Europe or North America, on the Algerian Departments of France(2), on the territory of Turkey or on the islands under the jurisdiction of any of the Parties in the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer; - on the forces, vessels, or aircraft of any of the Parties, when in or over these territories or any area in Europe in which occupation forces of any of the Parties were stationed on the date when the Treaty entered into force or the Mediterranean Sea or the North Atlantic area north of the Tropic of Cancer. ARTICLE 7 The Treaty does not effect, and shall not be interpreted as affecting, in any way the rights and obligations under the Charter of the Parties which are members of the United Nations, or the primary responsibility of the Security Council for the maintenance of international peace and security. 1 As amended by Article 2 of the Protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the accession of Greece and Turkey. 2 On 16th January 1963 the Council noted that insofar as the former Algerian Departments of France were concerned the relevant clauses of this Treaty had become inapplicable as from 3rd July 1962. ARTICLE 8 Each Party declares that none of the international engagements now in force between it and any other of the Parties or any third State is in conflict with the provisions of this Treaty, and undertakes not to enter into any international engagement in conflict with this Treaty. ARTICLE 9 The Parties hereby establish a Council, on which each of them shall be represented to consider matters concerning the implementation of this Treaty. The Council shall be so organised as to be able to meet promptly at any time. The Council shall set up such subsidiary bodies as may be necessary; in particular it shall establish immediately a defence committee which shall recommend measures for the implementation of Articles 3 and 5. ARTICLE 10 The Parties may, by unanimous agreement, invite any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic area to accede to this Treaty. Any State so invited may become a party to the Treaty by depositing its instrument of accession with the Government of the United States of America. The Government of the United States of America will inform each of the Parties of the deposit of each such instrument of accession. ARTICLE 11 This Treaty shall be ratified and its provisions carried out by the Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional processes. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited as soon as possible with the Government of the United States of America, which will notify all the other signatories of each deposit. The Treaty shall enter into force between the States which have ratified it as soon as the ratification of the majority of the signatories, including the ratifications of Belgium, Canada, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States, have been deposited and shall come into effect with respect to other States on the date of the deposit of their ratifications.3 ARTICLE 12 After the Treaty has been in force for ten years, or at any time 3 The Treaty came into force on 24 August 1949, after the deposition of the ratifications of all signatory states. thereafter, the Parties shall, if any of them so requests, consult together for the purpose of reviewing the Treaty, having regard for the factors then affecting peace and security in the North Atlantic area including the development of universal as well as regional arrangements under the Charter of the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security. ARTICLE 13 After the Treaty has been in force for twenty years, any Party may cease to be a Party one year after its notice of denunciation has been given to the Government of the United States of America, which will inform the Governments of the other Parties of the deposit of each notice of denunciation. ARTICLE 14 This Treaty, of which the English and French texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies will be transmitted by that government to the governments of the other signatories.
NATO Handbook uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX II 98. THE ALLIANCE'S STRATEGIC CONCEPT Agreed by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Rome on 7th-8th November 1991 1. At their meeting in London in July 1990, NATO's Heads of State and Government agreed on the need to transform the Atlantic Alliance to reflect the new, more promising, era in Europe. While reaffirming the basic principles on which the Alliance has rested since its inception, they recognized that the developments taking place in Europe would have a far-reaching impact on the way in which its aims would be met in future. In particular, they set in hand a fundamental strategic review. The resulting new Strategic Concept is set out below. PART I - THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT The New Strategic Environment 2. Since 1989, profound political changes have taken place in Central and Eastern Europe which have radically improved the security environment in which the North Atlantic Alliance seeks to achieve its objectives. The USSR's former satellites have fully recovered their sovereignty. The Soviet Union and its Republics are undergoing radical change. The three Baltic Republics have regained their independence. Soviet forces have left Hungary and Czechoslovakia and are due to complete their withdrawal from Poland and Germany by 1994. All the countries that were formerly adversaries of NATO have dismantled the Warsaw Pact and rejected ideological hostility to the West. They have, in varying degrees, embraced and begun to implement policies aimed at achieving pluralistic democracy, the rule of law, respect for human rights and a market economy. The political division of Europe that was the source of the military confrontation of the Cold War period has thus been overcome. 3. In the West, there have also been significant changes. Germany has been united and remains a full member of the Alliance and of European institutions. The fact that the countries of the European Community are working towards the goal of political union, including the development of a European security identity; and the enhancement of the role of the WEU, are important factors for European security. The strengthening of the security dimension in the process of European integration, and the enhancement of the role and responsibilities of European members of the Alliance are positive and mutually reinforcing. The development of a European security identity and defence role, reflected in the strengthening of the European pillar within the Alliance, will not only serve the interests of the European states but also reinforce the integrity and effectiveness of the Alliance as a whole. 4. Substantial progress in arms control has already enhanced stability and security by lowering arms levels and increasing military transparency and mutual confidence (including through the Stockholm CDE agreement of 1986, the INF Treaty of 1987 and the CSCE agreements and confidence and security-building measures of 1990). Implementation of the 1991 START Treaty will lead to increased stability through substantial and balanced reductions in the field of strategic nuclear arms. Further far-reaching changes and reductions in the nuclear forces of the United States and the Soviet Union will be pursued following President Bush's September 1991 initiative. Also of great importance is the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE), signed at the 1990 Paris Summit; its implementation will remove the Alliance's numerical inferiority in key conventional weapon systems and provide for effective verification procedures. All these developments will also result in an unprecedented degree of military transparency in Europe, thus increasing predictability and mutual confidence. Such transparency would be further enhanced by the achievement of an Open Skies regime. There are welcome prospects for further advances in arms control in conventional and nuclear forces, and for the achievement of a global ban on chemical weapons, as well as restricting de-stabilising arms exports and the proliferation of certain weapons technologies. 5. The CSCE process, which began in Helsinki in 1975, has already contributed significantly to overcoming the division of Europe. As a result of the Paris Summit, it now includes new institutional arrangements and provides a contractual framework for consultation and cooperation that can play a constructive role, complementary to that of NATO and the process of European integration, in preserving peace. 6. The historic changes that have occurred in Europe, which have led to the fulfilment of a number of objectives set out in the Harmel Report, have significantly improved the overall security of the Allies. The monolithic, massive and potentially immediate threat which was the principal concern of the Alliance in its first forty years has disappeared. On the other hand, a great deal of uncertainty about the future and risks to the security of the Alliance remain. 7. The new Strategic Concept looks forward to a security environment in which the positive changes referred to above have come to fruition. In particular, it assumes both the completion of the planned withdrawal of Soviet military forces from Central and Eastern Europe and the full implementation by all parties of the 1990 CFE Treaty. The implementation of the Strategic Concept will thus be kept under review in the light of the evolving security environment and in particular progress in fulfilling these assumptions. Further adaptation will be made to the extent necessary. Security Challenges and Risks 8. The security challenges and risks which NATO faces are different in nature from what they were in the past. The threat of a simultaneous, full-scale attack on all of NATO's European fronts has effectively been removed and thus no longer provides the focus for Allied strategy. Particularly in Central Europe, the risk of a surprise attack has been substantially reduced, and minimum Allied warning time has increased accordingly. 9. In contrast with the predominant threat of the past, the risks to Allied security that remain are multi-faceted in nature and multi- directional, which makes them hard to predict and assess. NATO must be capable of responding to such risks if stability in Europe and the security of Alliance members are to be preserved. These risks can arise in various ways. 10. Risks to Allied security are less likely to result from calculated aggression against the territory of the Allies, but rather from the adverse consequences of instabilities that may arise from the serious economic, social and political difficulties, including ethnic rivalries and territorial disputes, which are faced by many countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The tensions which may result, as long as they remain limited, should not directly threaten the security and territorial integrity of members of the Alliance. They could, however, lead to crises inimical to European stability and even to armed conflicts, which could involve outside powers or spill over into NATO countries, having a direct effect on the security of the Alliance. 11. In the particular case of the Soviet Union, the risks and uncertainties that accompany the process of change cannot be seen in isolation from the fact that its conventional forces are significantly larger than those of any other European State and its large nuclear arsenal comparable only with that of the United States. These capabilities have to be taken into account if stability and security in Europe are to be preserved. 12. The Allies also wish to maintain peaceful and non-adversarial relations with the countries in the Southern Mediterranean and Middle East. The stability and peace of the countries on the southern periphery of Europe are important for the security of the Alliance, as the 1991 Gulf war has shown. This is all the more so because of the build-up of military power and the proliferation of weapons technologies in the area, including weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles capable of reaching the territory of some member states of the Alliance. 13. Any armed attack on the territory of the Allies, from whatever direction, would be covered by Articles 5 and 6 of the Washington Treaty. However, Alliance security must also take account of the global context. Alliance security interests can be affected by other risks of a wider nature, including proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, disruption of the flow of vital resources and actions of terrorism and sabotage. Arrangements exist within the Alliance for consultation among the Allies under Article 4 of the Washington Treaty and, where appropriate, coordination of their efforts including their responses to such risks. 14. From the point of view of Alliance strategy, these different risks have to be seen in different ways. Even in a non-adversarial and cooperative relationship, Soviet military capability and build-up potential, including its nuclear dimension, still constitute the most significant factor of which the Alliance has to take account in maintaining the strategic balance in Europe. The end of East-West confrontation has, however, greatly reduced the risk of major conflict in Europe. On the other hand, there is a greater risk of different crises arising, which could develop quickly and would require a rapid response, but they are likely to be of a lesser magnitude. 15. Two conclusions can be drawn from this analysis of the strategic context. The first is that the new environment does not change the purpose or the security functions of the Alliance, but rather underlines their enduring validity. The second, on the other hand, is that the changed environment offers new opportunities for the Alliance to frame its strategy within a broad approach to security. PART II - ALLIANCE OBJECTIVES AND SECURITY FUNCTIONS The Purpose of the Alliance 16. NATO's essential purpose, set out in the Washington Treaty and reiterated in the London Declaration, is to safeguard the freedom and security of all its members by political and military means in accordance with the principles of the United Nations Charter. Based on common values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law, the Alliance has worked since its inception for the establishment of a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe. This Alliance objective remains unchanged. The Nature of the Alliance 17. NATO embodies the transatlantic link by which the security of North America is permanently tied to the security of Europe. It is the practical expression of effective collective effort among its members in support of their common interests. 18. The fundamental operating principle of the Alliance is that of common commitment and mutual cooperation among sovereign states in support of the indivisibility of security for all of its members. Solidarity within the Alliance, given substance and effect by NATO's daily work in both the political and military spheres, ensures that no single Ally is forced to rely upon its own national efforts alone in dealing with basic security challenges. Without depriving member states of their right and duty to assume their sovereign responsibilities in the field of defence, the Alliance enables them through collective effort to enhance their ability to realise their essential national security objectives. 19. The resulting sense of equal security amongst the members of the Alliance, regardless of differences in their circumstances or in their national military capabilities relative to each other, contributes to overall stability within Europe and thus to the creation of conditions conducive to increased cooperation both among Alliance members and with others. It is on this basis that members of the Alliance, together with other nations, are able to pursue the development of cooperative structures of security for a Europe whole and free. The Fundamental Tasks of the Alliance 20. The means by which the Alliance pursues its security policy to preserve the peace will continue to include the maintenance of a military capability sufficient to prevent war and to provide for effective defence; an overall capability to manage successfully crises affecting the security of its members; and the pursuit of political efforts favouring dialogue with other nations and the active search for a cooperative approach to European security, including in the field of arms control and disarmament. 21. To achieve its essential purpose, the Alliance performs the following fundamental security tasks: I. To provide one of the indispensable foundations for a stable security environment in Europe, based on the growth of democratic institutions and commitment to the peaceful resolution of disputes, in which no country would be able to intimidate or coerce any European nation or to impose hegemony through the threat or use of force. II. To serve, as provided for in Article 4 of the North Atlantic Treaty, as a transatlantic forum for Allied consultations on any issues that affect their vital interests, including possible developments posing risks for members' security, and for appropriate coordination of their efforts in fields of common concern. III. To deter and defend against any threat of aggression against the territory of any NATO member state. IV. To preserve the strategic balance within Europe. 22. Other European institutions such as the EC, WEU and CSCE also have roles to play, in accordance with their respective responsibilities and purposes, in these fields. The creation of a European identity in security and defence will underline the preparedness of the Europeans to take a greater share of responsibility for their security and will help to reinforce transatlantic solidarity. However the extent of its membership and of its capabilities gives NATO a particular position in that it can perform all four core security functions. NATO is the essential forum for consultation among the Allies and the forum for agreement on policies bearing on the security and defence commitments of its members under the Washington Treaty. 23. In defining the core functions of the Alliance in the terms set out above, member states confirm that the scope of the Alliance as well as their rights and obligations as provided for in the Washington Treaty remain unchanged. PART III - A BROAD APPROACH TO SECURITY Protecting Peace in a New Europe 24. The Alliance has always sought to achieve its objectives of safeguarding the security and territorial integrity of its members, and establishing a just and lasting peaceful order in Europe, through both political and military means. This comprehensive approach remains the basis of the Alliance's security policy. 25. But what is new is that, with the radical changes in the security situation, the opportunities for achieving Alliance objectives through political means are greater than ever before. It is now possible to draw all the consequences from the fact that security and stability have political, economic, social, and environmental elements as well as the indispensable defence dimension. Managing the diversity of challenges facing the Alliance requires a broad approach to security. This is reflected in three mutually reinforcing elements of Allied security policy; dialogue, cooperation, and the maintenance of a collective defence capability. 26. The Alliance's active pursuit of dialogue and cooperation, underpinned by its commitment to an effective collective defence capability, seeks to reduce the risks of conflict arising out of misunderstanding or design; to build increased mutual understanding and confidence among all European states; to help manage crises affecting the security of the Allies; and to expand the opportunities for a genuine partnership among all European countries in dealing with common security problems. 27. In this regard, the Alliance's arms control and disarmament policy contributes both to dialogue and to cooperation with other nations, and thus will continue to play a major role in the achievement of the Alliance's security objectives. The Allies seek, through arms control and disarmament, to enhance security and stability at the lowest possible level of forces consistent with the requirements of defence. Thus, the Alliance will continue to ensure that defence and arms control and disarmament objectives remain in harmony. 28. In fulfilling its fundamental objectives and core security functions, the Alliance will continue to respect the legitimate security interests of others, and seek the peaceful resolution of disputes as set forth in the Charter of the United Nations. The Alliance will promote peaceful and friendly international relations and support democratic institutions. In this respect, it recognizes the valuable contribution being made by other organizations such as the European Community and the CSCE, and that the roles of these institutions and of the Alliance are complementary. Dialogue 29. The new situation in Europe has multiplied the opportunities for dialogue on the part of the Alliance with the Soviet Union and the other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The Alliance has established regular diplomatic liaison and military contacts with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe as provided for in the London Declaration. The Alliance will further promote dialogue through regular diplomatic liaison, including an intensified exchange of views and information on security policy issues. Through such means the Allies, individually and collectively, will seek to make full use of the unprecedented opportunities afforded by the growth of freedom and democracy throughout Europe and encourage greater mutual understanding of respective security concerns, to increase transparency and predictability in security affairs, and thus to reinforce stability. The military can help to overcome the divisions of the past, not least through intensified military contacts and greater military transparency. The Alliance's pursuit of dialogue will provide a foundation for greater cooperation throughout Europe and the ability to resolve differences and conflicts by peaceful means. Cooperation 30. The Allies are also committed to pursue cooperation with all states in Europe on the basis of the principles set out in the Charter of Paris for a New Europe. They will seek to develop broader and productive patterns of bilateral and multilateral cooperation in all relevant fields of European security, with the aim, inter alia, of preventing crises or, should they arise, ensuring their effective management. Such partnership between the members of the Alliance and other nations in dealing with specific problems will be an essential factor in moving beyond past divisions towards one Europe whole and free. This policy of cooperation is the expression of the inseparability of security among European states. It is built upon a common recognition among Alliance members that the persistence of new political, economic or social divisions across the continent could lead to future instability, and such divisions must thus be diminished. Collective Defence 31. The political approach to security will thus become increasingly important. Nonetheless, the military dimension remains essential. The maintenance of an adequate military capability and clear preparedness to act collectively in the common defence remain central to the Alliance's security objectives. Such a capability, together with political solidarity, is required in order to prevent any attempt at coercion or intimidation, and to guarantee that military aggression directed against the Alliance can never be perceived as an option with any prospect of success. It is equally indispensable so that dialogue and cooperation can be undertaken with confidence and achieve their desired results. Management of Crisis and Conflict Prevention 32. In the new political and strategic environment in Europe, the success of the Alliance's policy of preserving peace and preventing war depends even more than in the past on the effectiveness of preventive diplomacy and successful management of crises affecting the security of its members. Any major aggression in Europe is much more unlikely and would be preceded by significant warning time. Though on a much smaller scale, the range and variety of other potential risks facing the Alliance are less predictable than before. 33. In these new circumstances there are increased opportunities for the successful resolution of crises at an early stage. The success of Alliance policy will require a coherent approach determined by the Alliance's political authorities choosing and coordinating appropriate crisis management measures as required from a range of political and other measures, including those in the military field. Close control by the political authorities of the Alliance will be applied from the outset and at all stages. Appropriate consultation and decision making procedures are essential to this end. 34. The potential of dialogue and cooperation within all of Europe must be fully developed in order to help to defuse crises and to prevent conflicts since the Allies' security is inseparably linked to that of all other states in Europe. To this end, the Allies will support the role of the CSCE process and its institutions. Other bodies including the European Community, Western European Union and United Nations may also have an important role to play. PART IV - GUIDELINES FOR DEFENCE Principles of Alliance Strategy 35. The diversity of challenges now facing the Alliance thus requires a broad approach to security. The transformed political and strategic environment enables the Alliance to change a number of important features of its military strategy and to set out new guidelines, while reaffirming proven fundamental principles. At the London Summit, it was therefore agreed to prepare a new military strategy and a revised force posture responding to the changed circumstances. 36. Alliance strategy will continue to reflect a number of fundamental principles. The Alliance is purely defensive in purpose: none of its weapons will ever be used except in self-defence, and it does not consider itself to be anyone's adversary. The Allies will maintain military strength adequate to convince any potential aggressor that the use of force against the territory of one of the Allies would meet collective and effective action by all of them and that the risks involved in initiating conflict would outweigh any foreseeable gains. The forces of the Allies must therefore be able to defend Alliance frontiers, to stop an aggressor's advance as far forward as possible, to maintain or restore the territorial integrity of Allied nations and to terminate war rapidly by making an aggressor reconsider his decision, cease his attack and withdraw. The role of the Alliance's military forces is to assure the territorial integrity and political independence of its member states, and thus contribute to peace and stability in Europe. 37. The security of all Allies is indivisible: an attack on one is an attack on all. Alliance solidarity and strategic unity are accordingly crucial prerequisites for collective security. The achievement of the Alliance's objectives depends critically on the equitable sharing of roles, risks and responsibilities, as well as the benefits, of common defence. The presence of North American conventional and US nuclear forces in Europe remains vital to the security of Europe, which is inseparably linked to that of North America. As the process of developing a European security identity and defence role progresses, and is reflected in the strengthening of the European pillar within the Alliance, the European members of the Alliance will assume a greater degree of the responsibility for the defence of Europe. 38. The collective nature of Alliance defence is embodied in practical arrangements that enable the Allies to enjoy the crucial political, military and resource advantages of collective defence, and prevent the renationalisation of defence policies, without depriving the Allies of their sover- eignty. These arrangements are based on an integrated military structure as well as on cooperation and coordination agreements. Key features include collective force planning; common operational planning; multinational formations; the stationing of forces outside home territory, where appropriate on a mutual basis; crisis management and reinforcement arrangements; procedures for consultation; common standards and procedures for equipment, training and logistics; joint and combined exercises; and infrastructure, armaments and logistics cooperation. 39. To protect peace and to prevent war or any kind of coercion, the Alliance will maintain for the foreseeable future an appropriate mix of nuclear and conventional forces based in Europe and kept up to date where necessary, although at a significantly reduced level. Both elements are essential to Alliance security and cannot substitute one for the other. Conventional forces contribute to war prevention by ensuring that no potential aggressor could contemplate a quick or easy victory, or territorial gains, by conventional means. Taking into account the diversity of risks with which the Alliance could be faced, it must maintain the forces necessary to provide a wide range of conventional response options. But the Alliance's conventional forces alone cannot ensure the prevention of war. Nuclear weapons make a unique contribution in rendering the risks of any aggression incalculable and unacceptable. Thus, they remain essential to preserve peace. The Alliance's New Force Posture 40. At the London Summit, the Allies concerned agreed to move away, where appropriate, from the concept of forward defence towards a reduced forward presence, and to modify the principle of flexible response to reflect a reduced reliance on nuclear weapons. The changes stemming from the new strategic environment and the altered risks now facing the Alliance enable significant modifications to be made in the missions of the Allies' military forces and in their posture. The Missions of Alliance Military Forces 41. The primary role of Alliance military forces, to guarantee the security and territorial integrity of member states, remains unchanged. But this role must take account of the new strategic environment, in which a single massive and global threat has given way to diverse and multi-directional risks. Alliance forces have different functions to perform in peace, crisis and war. 42. In peace, the role of Allied military forces is to guard against risks to the security of Alliance members; to contribute towards the maintenance of stability and balance in Europe; and to ensure that peace is preserved. They can contribute to dialogue and cooperation throughout Europe by their participation in confidence-building activities, including those which enhance transparency and improve communication; as well as in verification of arms control agreements. Allies could, further, be called upon to contribute to global stability and peace by providing forces for United Nations missions. 43. In the event of crises which might lead to a military threat to the security of Alliance members, the Alliance's military forces can complement and reinforce political actions within a broad approach to security,and thereby contribute to the management of such crises and their peaceful resolution. This requires that these forces have a capability for measured and timely responses in such circumstances; the capability to deter action against any Ally and, in the event that aggression takes place, to respond to and repel it as well as to reestablish the territorial integrity of member states. 44. While in the new security environment a general war in Europe has become highly unlikely, it cannot finally be ruled out. The Alliance's military forces, which have as their fundamental mission to protect peace, have to provide the essential insurance against potential risks at the minimum level necessary to prevent war of any kind, and, should aggression occur, to restore peace. Hence the need for the capabilities and the appropriate mix of forces already described. Guidelines for the Alliance's Force Posture 45. To implement its security objectives and strategic principles in the new environment, the organization of the Allies' forces must be adapted to provide capabilities that can contribute to protecting peace, managing crises that affect the security of Alliance members, and preventing war, while retaining at all times the means to defend, if necessary, all Allied territory and to restore peace. The posture of Allies' forces will conform to the guidelines developed in the following paragraphs. 46. The size, readiness, availability and deployment of the Alliance's military forces will continue to reflect its strictly defensive nature and will be adapted accordingly to the new strategic environment including arms control agreements. This means in particular: (a) that the overall size of the Allies' forces, and in many cases their readiness, will be reduced; (b) that the maintenance of a comprehensive in-place linear defensive posture in the central region will no longer be required. The peacetime geographical distribution of forces will ensure a sufficient military presence throughout the territory of the Alliance, including where necessary forward deployment of appropriate forces. Regional considerations and, in particular, geostrategic differences within the Alliance will have to be taken into account, including the shorter warning times to which the northern and southern regions will be subject compared with the central region and, in the southern region, the potential for instability and the military capabilities in the adjacent areas. 47. To ensure that at this reduced level the Allies' forces can play an effective role both in managing crises and in countering aggression against any Ally, they will require enhanced flexibility and mobility and an assured capability for augmentation when necessary. For these reasons: (a) Available forces will include, in a limited but militarily significant proportion, ground, air and sea immediate and rapid reaction elements able to respond to a wide range of eventualities, many of which are unforeseeable. They will be of sufficient quality, quantity and readiness to deter a limited attack and, if required, to defend the territory of the Allies against attacks, particularly those launched without long warning time. (b) The forces of the Allies will be structured so as to permit their military capability to be built up when necessary. This ability to build up by reinforcement, by mobilising reserves, or by reconstituting forces, must be in proportion to potential threats to Alliance security, including the possibility - albeit unlikely, but one that prudence dictates should not be ruled out - of a major conflict. Consequently, capabilities for timely reinforcement and resupply both within Europe and from North America will be of critical importance. (c) Appropriate force structures and procedures, including those that would provide an ability to build up, deploy and draw down forces quickly and discriminately, will be developed to permit measured, flexible and timely responses in order to reduce and defuse tensions. These arrangements must be exercised regularly in peacetime. (d) In the event of use of forces, including the deployment of reaction and other available reinforcing forces as an instrument of crisis management, the Alliance's political authorities will, as before, exercise close control over their employment at all stages. Existing procedures will be reviewed in the light of the new missions and posture of Alliance forces. Characteristics of Conventional Forces 48. It is essential that the Allies' military forces have a credible ability to fulfil their functions in peace, crisis and war in a way appropriate to the new security environment. This will be reflected in force and equipment levels; readiness and availability; training and exercises; deployment and employment options; and force build-up capabilities, all of which will be adjusted accordingly. The conventional forces of the Allies will include, in addition to immediate and rapid reaction forces, main defence forces, which will provide the bulk of forces needed to ensure the Alliance's territorial integrity and the unimpeded use of their lines of communication; and augmentation forces, which will provide a means of reinforcing existing forces in a particular region. Main defence and augmentation forces will comprise both active and mobilisable elements. 49. Ground, maritime and air forces will have to cooperate closely and combine and assist each other in operations aimed at achieving agreed objectives. These forces will consist of the following: (a) Ground forces, which are essential to hold or regain territory. The majority will normally be at lower states of readiness and, overall,there will be a greater reliance on mobilization and reserves. All categories of ground forces will require demonstrable combat effectiveness together with an appropriately enhanced capability for flexible deployment. (b) Maritime forces, which because of their inherent mobility, flexibility and endurance, make an important contribution to the Alliance's crisis response options. Their essential missions are to ensure sea control in order to safeguard the Allies' sea lines of communication,to support land and amphibious operations, and to protect the deployment of the Alliance's sea-based nuclear deterrent. (c) Air forces, whose ability to fulfil their fundamental roles in both independent air and combined operations - counter-air, air interdiction and offensive air support - as well as to contribute to surveillance, reconnaissance and electronic warfare operations, is essential to the overall effectiveness of the Allies' military forces. Their role in supporting operations, on land and at sea, will require appropriate long-distance airlift and air refuelling capabilities. Air defence forces, including modern air command and control systems, are required to ensure a secure air defence environment. 50. In light of the potential risks it poses, the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction should be given special consideration. Solution of this problem will require complementary approaches including, for example, export control and missile defences. 51. Alliance strategy is not dependent on a chemical warfare capability. The Allies remain committed to the earliest possible achievement of a global, comprehensive, and effectively verifiable ban on all chemical weapons. But, even after implementation of a global ban, precautions of a purely defensive nature will need to be maintained. 52. In the new security environment and given the reduced overall force levels in future, the ability to work closely together, which will facilitate the cost effective use of Alliance resources, will be particularly important for the achievement of the missions of the Allies' forces. The Alliance's collective defence arrangements in which, for those concerned, the integrated military structure, including multinational forces, plays the key role, will be essential in this regard. Integrated and multinational European structures, as they are further developed in the context of an emerging European Defence Identity, will also increasingly have a similarly important role to play in enhancing the Allies' ability to work together in the common defence. Allies' efforts to achieve maximum cooperation will be based on the common guidelines for defence defined above. Practical arrangements will be developed to ensure the necessary mutual transparency and complementarity between the European security and defence identity and the Alliance. 53. In order to be able to respond flexibly to a wide range of possible contingencies, the Allies concerned will require effective surveillance and intelligence, flexible command and control, mobility within and between regions, and appropriate logistics capabilities, including transport capacities. Logistic stocks must be sufficient to sustain all types of forces in order to permit effective defence until resupply is available. The capability of the Allies concerned to build up larger, adequately equipped and trained forces, in a timely manner and to a level appropriate to any risk to Alliance security, will also make an essential contribution to crisis management and defence. This capability will include the ability to reinforce any area at risk within the territory of the Allies and to establish a multinational presence when and where this is needed.Elements of all three force categories will be capable of being employed flexibly as part of both intra-European and transatlantic reinforcement. Proper use of these capabilities will require control of the necessary lines of communication as well as appropriate support and exercise arrangements. Civil resources will be of increasing relevance in this context. 54. For the Allies concerned, collective defence arrangements will rely increasingly on multinational forces, complementing national commitments to NATO. Multinational forces demonstrate the Alliance's resolve to maintain a credible collective defence; enhance Alliance cohesion; reinforce the transatlantic partnership and strengthen the European pillar. Multinational forces, and in particular reaction forces, reinforce solidarity. They can also provide a way of deploying more capable formations than might be available purely nationally, thus helping to make more efficient use of scarce defence resources. This may include a highly integrated, multinational approach to specific tasks and functions. Characteristics of Nuclear Forces 55. The fundamental purpose of the nuclear forces of the Allies is political: to preserve peace and prevent coercion and any kind of war. They will continue to fulfil an essential role by ensuring uncertainty in the mind of any aggressor about the nature of the Allies' response to military aggression. They demonstrate that aggression of any kind is not a rational option. The supreme guarantee of the security of the Allies is provided by the strategic nuclear forces of the Alliance, particularly those of the United States; the independent nuclear forces of the United Kingdom and France, which have a deterrent role of their own, contribute to the overall deterrence and security of the Allies. 56. A credible Alliance nuclear posture and the demonstration of Alliance solidarity and common commitment to war prevention continue to require widespread participation by European Allies involved in collective defence planning in nuclear roles, in peacetime basing of nuclear forces on their territory and in command, control and consultation arrangements. Nuclear forces based in Europe and committed to NATO provide an essential political and military link between the European and the North American members of the Alliance. The Alliance will therefore maintain adequate nuclear forces in Europe. These forces need to have the necessary characteristics and appropriate flexibility and survivability, to be perceived as a credible and effective element of the Allies' strategy in preventing war. They will be maintained at the minimum level sufficient to preserve peace and stability. 57. The Allies concerned consider that, with the radical changes in the security situation, including conventional force levels in Europe maintained in relative balance and increased reaction times, NATO's ability to defuse a crisis through diplomatic and other means or, should it be necessary, to mount a successful conventional defence will significantly improve. The circumstances in which any use of nuclear weapons might have to be contemplated by them are therefore even more remote. They can therefore significantly reduce their sub-strategic nuclear forces. They will maintain adequate sub-strategic forces based in Europe which will provide an essential link with strategic nuclear forces, reinforcing the trans-Atlantic link. These will consist solely of dual capable aircraft which could, if necessary, be supplemented by offshore systems. Sub-strategic nuclear weapons will, however, not be deployed in normal circumstances on surface vessels and attack submarines. There is no requirement for nuclear artillery or ground-launched short-range nuclear missiles and they will be eliminated. PART V - CONCLUSION 58. This Strategic Concept reaffirms the defensive nature of the Alliance and the resolve of its members to safeguard their security, sovereignty and territorial integrity. The Alliance's security policy is based on dialogue; cooperation; and effective collective defence asmutually reinforcing instruments for preserving the peace. Making full use of the new opportunities available, the Alliance will maintain security at the lowest possible level of forces consistent with the requirements of defence. In this way, the Alliance is making an essential contribution to promoting a lasting peaceful order. 59. The Allies will continue to pursue vigorously further progress in arms control and confidence-building measures with the objective of enhancing security and stability. They will also play an active part in promoting dialogue and cooperation between states on the basis of the principles enunciated in the Paris Charter. 60. NATO's strategy will retain the flexibility to reflect further developments in the politico-military environment, including progress in the moves towards a European security identity, and in any changes in the risks to Alliance security. For the Allies concerned, the Strategic Concept will form the basis for the further development of the Alliance's defence policy, its operational concepts, its conventional and nuclear force posture and its collective defence planning arrangements.
NATO handbook13 uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX III 99. MEMBERS OF THE NORTH ATLANTIC COUNCIL President/ Mr. Hikmet Cetin (Turkey) Chairman Mr. Manfred Worner (Germany) Secretary General of NATO Deputy Chairman Ambassador Amedeo de Franchis (Italy) Deputy Secretary General Permanent Representatives on the North Atlantic Council Belgium Mr. Alain Rens Canada Mr. James K. Bartleman Denmark Mr. Ole Bierring France Mr. Gabriel Robin Germany Dr. Hans-Friedrich von Ploetz Greece Mr. Dimitri Petrounakos Iceland Mr. Sverrir Haukur Gunnlaugsson Italy Mr. Enzo Perlot Luxembourg Mr. Thierry Stoll Netherlands Mr. Adriaan Jacobovits de Szeged Norway Mr. Leif Mevik Portugal Mr. Jose Gregorio Faria Spain Mr. Carlos Miranda Turkey Mr. Tugay Ozceri United Kingdom Sir John Weston United States Mr. Reginald Bartholomew / An honorary position held in rotation each year by a Foreign Minister of one of the member countries. APPENDIX IV 100. MEMBERS OF THE MILITARY COMMITTEE President: General D. Corcione (Italy) (Army) Chairman: General V. Eide (Norway) (Army)/ Deputy Chairman: Vice-Admiral N. W. Ray (United States) (Navy) Military Representatives to the NATO Military Committee in Permanent Session Belgium Lt.Gen. R. Hoeben (Air Force) Canada Vice Admiral R. E. George (Navy) Denmark Lt.Gen. P. B. Krogen (Army) Germany Lt.Gen. Jorn Soder (Army) Greece Lt.Gen. P. Diakoumakos (Air Force) Italy Vice Admiral d'Escadre M. Castelletti (Navy) Luxembourg Lt.Col. J. P. Heck (Army) Netherlands Lt.Gen. G. J. Folmer (Army) Norway Lt.Gen. H. I. Sunde (Army) Portugal Lt.Gen. G. A. do Espirito Santo (Army) Spain Lt.Gen. F. Pardo de Santayana y Coloma (Army) Turkey Lt.Gen. H. Ozkok, Tuar (Army) United Kingdom Gen. Sir Edward Jones (Army) United States Admiral W. D. Smith (Navy) Chief, French Maj.Gen. J. P. Pelisson (Air Force) Military Mission International Military Staff Director: Lt.Gen. J. K. Dangerfield (Canada) (Army) / Field Marshal Sir Richard Vincent (United Kingdom) (Army) will replace General V. Eide in 1993.
NATO handbook14 uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX V 101. THE MAJOR NATO COMMANDERS Supreme Allied Commander Europe, SACEUR Gen. John M. Shalikashvili (United States) Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, SACLANT Admiral Paul D. Miller (United States) Allied Commander-in-Chief Channel, CINCHAN Admiral Sir Jock Slater, KCB, LVO (United Kingdom) APPENDIX VI 102. PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE NATO INTERNATIONAL STAFF Secretary General Mr. Manfred Worner (Germany) Deputy Secretary General Ambassador Amedeo de Franchis (Italy) Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs Mr. Gebhardt von Moltke (Germany) Assistant Secretary General for Defence Planning and Policy Mr. Michael Legge (United Kingdom) Assistant Secretary General for Defence Support Mr. Robin L. Beard (United States) Assistant Secretary General for Infrastructure, Logistics and Civil Emergency Planning Vice-Admiral Herpert van Foreest (Netherlands) Assistant Secretary General for Scientific and Environmental Affairs Dr. Jean-Marie Cadiou (France) Executive Secretary Mr. Christopher Prebensen (Norway) Director of the Private Office Mr. Roland Wegener (Germany) Director of Information and Press Dr. Erika v. C. Bruce (Canada) APPENDIX VII 103. PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS OF THE NATO INTERNATIONAL MILITARY STAFF Director of the International Military Staff Lt.Gen. J. K. Dangerfield (Canada) Assistant Director, Intelligence Division Rear Admiral A. C. Tezeren (Turkey) Assistant Director, Plans and Policy Division Maj.Gen. D. Genschel (Germany) Assistant Director, Operations Division Maj.Gen. C. C. Ahnfeldt Mollerup (Denmark) Assistant Director, Logistics Division Maj.Gen. F. P. Schulte (Netherlands) Assistant Director, Communications and Information Systems Division Maj.Gen. I. N. Tsoukias (Greece) Assistant Director, Armaments and Standardization Division Maj.Gen. E. Stai (Norway) Secretary of the International Military Staff Brig. G. C. Van Orden (United Kingdom) Representative of SACEUR (SACEUREP) Maj.Gen. R. I. Emmerik (Netherlands) Representative of SACLANT and CINCHAN Vice-Admiral R. E. Pedersen (Norway)
NATO handbook15 uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX VIII 104. PRINCIPAL NATO AGENCIES AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development 7 rue Ancelle 92200 Neuilly sur Seine France Director Dr. W.A. Wennerstrom CEOA Central Europe Operating Agency BP 552 78005 Versailles France General Manager Mr. C. Lamur MAS Military Agency for Standardization NATO Headquarters Chairman Maj.Gen. E. Stai (Norway) NACISA NATO Communications & Information Systems Agency 8 rue de Geneve 1110 Brussels Director General Mr. W. Krauss NACMA NATO ACCS Management Agency 8 rue de Geneve 1110 Brussels General Manager Maj.Gen. (Ret'd) W. G. MacLaren NAHEMA NATO Helicopter (NH90) Design, Development, Production and Logistics Management Agency 53-55 Avenue de l'Europe F-13091 Aix-en-Provence Cedex 2 General Manager Lt.Gen. G. Gianetti NAMMA NATO MRCA Development & Production Management Agency 16 Arabellastrasse 8000 Munchen 86 Germany General Manager Dr. H. Ruhle NAMSA NATO Maintenance & Supply Agency 8302 Capellen Luxembourg General Manager Maj. General H. Schmidt-Petri NAPMA NATO Airborne Early Warning & Control Programme Management Agency Akerstraat 7 6445 CL Brunssum Netherlands General Manager Brig.Gen. E. Von Kospoth NDC NATO Defense College Viale della Civita del Lavoro 38 00144 Roma Italy Commandant Lt.General P. Castelo Branco (Portugal)/ NEFMA NATO EFA Development, Production & Logistic Management Agency Arabellastrasse 16 8000 Munchen Germany General Manager Gen. D. A. Antonio Rossetti NHMO (HAWK) NATO Hawk Management Office 26 rue Gallieni 92500 Rueil-Malmaison Cedex France General Manager Gen. S. A. Bellassai SACLANTCEN Viale San Bartolomeo, 400 19026 La Spezia Italy Director Dr. J. Foxwell STC SHAPE Technical Centre Oude Waalsdorperweg, 61 P.O. Box 174 The Hague Netherlands Director Mr. D. Marquis / Lt.General R. Evraire (Canada) will replace Lt.General P. Castelo Branco in February 1993.
NATO handbook16 uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX IX 105. ABBREVIATIONS IN COMMON USE ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ACCHAN Allied Command Channel ACE Allied Command Europe ACLANT Allied Command Atlantic ACCS Air Command and Control System ADP Automated Data Processing AEW Airborne Early Warning AFCENT Allied Forces Central Europe AFNORTH Allied Forces Northern Europe AFSOUTH Allied Forces Southern Europe AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development ALCM Air-Launched Cruise Missile AMF ACE Mobile Force APAG Atlantic Policy Advisory Group ASW Anti-Submarine Warfare ATA Atlantic Treaty Association AWACS Airborne Warning and Control System BMEWS Ballistic Missile Early Warning System CAPS Conventional Armaments Planning System CBM Confidence Building Measure CCMS Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society CDE Conference on Security and Confidence Build- ing Measures and Disarmament in Europe CEAC Committee for European Airspace Coordin- ation CENTAG Central Army Group, Central Europe CEOA Central Europe Operating Agency CEP Civil Emergency Planning CEPS Central Europe Pipeline System CFE Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe CHANCOM Channel Committee CINCEASTLANT Commander-in-Chief Eastern Atlantic Area CINCENT Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Central Europe CINCHAN Allied Commander-in-Chief Channel CINCIBERLANT Commander-in-Chief Iberian Atlantic Area CINCNORTH Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Northern Europe CINCSOUTH Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe CINCUKAIR Commander-in-Chief United Kingdom Air Forces CINCWESTLANT Commander-in-Chief Western Atlantic Area CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CIS Communications and Information Systems CNAD Conference of National Armaments Directors CONMAROPS Concept of Maritime Operations CPSU Communist Party of the Soviet Union CPX Command Post Exercise CSBM Confidence and Security Building Measure CSCE Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe CST Conventional Stability Talks CUSRPG Canada-US Regional Planning Group DPC Defence Planning Committee DRC Defence Review Committee EC European Community ECCM Electronic Counter-Countermeasures ECM Electronic Countermeasures EMP Electro-Magnetic Pulse ENTG EURO/NATO Training Group ESA European Space Agency EUROGROUP Acronym used for informal Group of NATO European Defence Ministers EW Electronic Warfare EWG Executive Working Group GLCM Ground Launched Cruise Missile HLTF High Level Task Force IATA International Air Transport Association ICAO International Civil Aviation Organisation ICB International Competitive Bidding ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile IEPG Independent European Programme Group IISS International Institute for Strategic Studies IMS International Military Staff INF Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces IRBM Intermediate-Range Ballistic Missile LCC Logistics Coordination Centre LTDP Long-Term Defence Programme MARAIRMED Maritime Air Forces Mediterranean MAREQ Military Assistance Requirements MAS Military Agency for Standardization MBFR Mutual and Balanced Force Reductions MC Military Committee MCM Mine Countermeasures MILREP Military Representative (to the MC) MNC Major NATO Commander MOD Ministery of Defence MOU Memorandum of Understanding NAA North Atlantic Assembly NAC North Atlantic Council NACC North Atlantic Cooperation Council NACISA NATO Communications and Information Systems Agency NACMA NATO Air Command and Control Systems Management Agency NADEFCOL NATO Defence College NAEW NATO Airborne Early Warning NAHEMA NATO Helicopter (NH90) Design, Develop- ment, Production and Logistics Management Organisation NAMFI NATO Missile Firing Installation NAMMA NATO Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Develop- ment and Production Management Agency NAMMO NATO Multi-Role Combat Aircraft Develop- ment and Production Management Organisation NAMSA NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency NAMSO NATO Maintenance and Supply Organisation NAPMA NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Programme Management Agency NAPMO NATO Airborne Early Warning and Control Programme Management Organisation NAPR NATO Armaments Planning Review NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organisation NAVOCFORMED Naval On-Call Force, Mediterranean NCCIS NATO Command, Control and Information System NEFMA NATO European Fighter Aircraft Develop- ment, Production and Logistics Management Agency NEFMO NATO European Fighter Aircraft Develop- ment, Production and Logistics Management Organisation NHMO NATO HAWK Management Office NHPLO NATO HAWK Production and Logistics Organisation NIAG NATO Industrial Advisory Group NICS NATO Integrated Communications System NMR National Military Representative (to SHAPE) NORAD North American Air Defence System NORTHAG Northern Army Group, Central Europe NPG Nuclear Planning Group NPLO NATO Production and Logistics Organisation NSC NATO Supply Centre OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries OTAN Organisation du Traite de l'Atlantique Nord PAPS Periodic Armaments Planning System PERM REP Permanent Representative (to the NAC) PNET Peaceful Nuclear Explosion Treaty R&D Research and Development SAC Strategic Air Command SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander Europe SACLANT Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic SACLANTCEN SACLANT Undersea Research Centre SALT Strategic Arms Limitation Talks SATCOM Satellite Communications SCEPC Senior Civil Emergency Planning Committee SCG Special Consultative Group SDI Strategic Defence Initiative SHAPE Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe SLBM Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile SLCM Sea-Launched Cruise Missile SNF Short-Range Nuclear Forces STANAG Standardization Agreement STANAVFORCHAN Standing Naval Force Channel STANAVFORLANT Standing Naval Force Atlantic STANAVFORMED Standing Naval Force Mediterranean START Strategic Arms Reduction Talks STC SHAPE Technical Centre TLE Treaty Limited Equipment TNF Theatre Nuclear Forces TTBT Threshold Test Ban Treaty UN United Nations UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation VCC Verification Coordinating Committee WEU Western European Union WG Working Group WHO World Health Organisation
NATO handbook17 uploaded March 25, 1993
APPENDIX X 106. CHRONOLOGY 1945 26 June The United Nations Charter is signed at San Fran- cisco. 6 August Explosion of Hiroshima atom bomb. 1946 16 March Winston Churchill's ``Iron Curtain'' speech at Fulton, Missouri. 1947 19 January The Soviet-sponsored Communist ``Lublin-Com- mittee'' monopolises power in Poland. 12 March President Truman urges the United States ``to sup- port free peoples who are resisting attempted subju- gation by armed minorities or by outside pressure'' (Truman Doctrine). 5 June United States Secretary of State, George C. Mar- shall, announces plans for the economic rehabilita- tion of Europe (Marshall Plan). 5 October Establishment of Cominform, the organisation for the ideological unity of the Soviet bloc, following rejection of Marshall Aid by the Soviet Union and its allies. 1948 22 February The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia gains control of the government in Prague through a coup d'Etat. 17 March Signature of the Brussels Treaty of Economic, Social and Cultural Collaboration and Collective Self-Defence by the Foreign Ministers of Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. 11 June The United States Senate adopts the ``Vandenberg Resolution''. 24 June Beginning of the Berlin blockade by the Soviet Union. 28 June Formal expulsion of Yugoslavia from Cominform. 6 July Talks on North Atlantic defence begin in Washing- ton between the United States, Canada and the Brussels Treaty Powers. 27-28 September The Defence Ministers of the Brussels Treaty Powers decide to create a Western Union Defence Organisation. 25-26 October The Consultative Council of the Brussels Treaty Powers announces ``complete agreement on the principle of a defensive pact for the North Atlan- tic''. 10 December Negotiations on the North Atlantic Treaty open in Washington between the representatives of the Brussels Treaty Powers, Canada and the United States. 1949 15 March The negotiating powers invite Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Norway and Portugal to adhere to the North Atlantic Treaty. 2 April The governments concerned repudiate Soviet asser- tions that the North Atlantic Treaty is contrary to the United Nations Charter. 4 April The North Atlantic Treaty is signed in Washington by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kindgom and the United States. 8 April The Brussels Treaty Powers, Denmark, Italy and Norway, request United States military and finan- cial assistance. 9 May The Berlin blockade is lifted. 24 August The North Atlantic Treaty enters into force. 17 September First session of the North Atlantic Council in Washington. 6 October Mutual Defence Assistance Act of 1949 is signed by President Truman. 1950 9 May The French Government proposes the creation of a single authority to control the production of steel and coal in France and Germany, open for member- ship to other countries (Schuman Plan). 25 June North Korean Forces attack the Republic of South Korea. 24 October French Prime Minister, Rene Pleven, outlines his plan for a European unified army, including German contingents, within the framework of NATO. 19 December The North Atlantic Council appoints General Dwight D. Eisenhower to be the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR). 20 December The Brussels Treaty Powers decide to merge the military organisation of the Western Union into the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. 1951 2 April Allied Command Europe becomes operational with Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE) located at Roquencourt, near Paris. 18 April Setting up of the European Coal and Steel Commu- nity by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Ger- many. 17-22 October Signature in London of the protocol to the North Atlantic Treaty on the accession of Greece and Turkey. 1952 30 January Appointment of Vice-Admiral Lynde D. McCor- mick (United States) to be the first Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT). 18 February Greece and Turkey accede to the North Atlantic Treaty. 21 February The Council establishes a Channel Command, and appoints Admiral Sir Arthur John Power as the first Commander-in-Chief Channel (CINCHAN). 12 March Lord Ismay (United Kingdom) is appointed Vice- Chairman of the North Atlantic Council and Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. 10 April Supreme Allied Command Atlantic (SACLANT) be- comes operational, with headquarters at Norfolk, Virginia, USA. 16 April NATO opens its provisional headquarters at the Palais de Chaillot, Paris. 28 April First meeting of the North Atlantic Council in permanent session in Paris. 1953 5 March The death of Stalin. 23 July Korean Armistice signed at Panmunjon. 8 August USSR announces its possession of the hydrogen bomb. 1954 7 May The United Kingdom and the United States reject the USSR's bid to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. 29 August The French National Assembly decides against ratification of the Treaty setting up the European Defence Community (EDC). 23 October Signature of the Paris Agreements. The Federal Republic of Germany is invited to join NATO, and Italy and the Federal Republic of Germany accede to the Western European Union (WEU). 1955 5 May The Federal Republic of Germany becomes a member of NATO. 14 May The USSR concludes the Warsaw Treaty with Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania. 18-23 July First Conference of NATO Parliamentarians (since November 1966, the North Atlantic Assembly) in Paris. 1956 14 February Khrushchev denounces Stalin in ``secret'' speech. 18 April Dissolution of Cominform. 28 June Anti-regime riots erupt at Poznan in Poland. 26 July Egypt nationalises the Suez Canal. 4 November Soviet suppression of Hungarian people's rebel- lion. 13 December The North Atlantic Council approves the recom- mendations contained in the Report of the Commit- tee of Three on non-military cooperation in NATO. 1957 25 March Signature of the Rome Treaties setting up Euratom and the European Economic Communities. 16 May Paul-Henri Spaak (Belgium) succeeds Lord Ismay as Secretary General of NATO. 4 October The first Soviet Sputnik is launched. 16-19 December At a meeting of Heads of Government in Paris, Alliance leaders reaffirm the principles and pur- poses of the Atlantic Alliance. 1958 1 January Entry into force of the Treaty of Rome setting up the European Economic Community. 15-17 April Defence Ministers of the NATO countries meeting in Paris reaffirm the defensive character of the NATO strategy. 1959 1 January Overthrow of the Batista regime in Cuba by Fidel Castro. 15-22 December Inauguration of the new NATO Headquarters at the Porte Dauphine in Paris. 1960 1 May American U2 aircraft is shot down over Soviet terri- tory. 23 September Khrushchev attends the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York. 1961 12 April Soviet Major Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man orbited in space. 21 April Dirk U. Stikker (Netherlands) succeeds Paul-Henri Spaak as Secretary General of NATO. 13 August Erection of the Berlin Wall. 1962 10 April Macmillan and Kennedy appeal to Khrushchev for agreement on a test ban treaty. 4-6 May Foreign Ministers and Defence Ministers of the North Atlantic Alliance review the circumstances in which the Alliance might be compelled to have recourse to nuclear weapons (Athens Guidelines). 22 October- 20 November Partial blockade of Cuba by the US following revelation of Soviet construction of missile bases on the island; lifted following Soviet agreement to dismantle the bases. 18-20 December President Kennedy and Prime Minister Macmillan confer at Nassau, Bahamas. They agree to contrib- ute part of their strategic nuclear forces to NATO. 1963 20 June Agreement on a ``hot line'' between Washington and Moscow is signed in Geneva by the United States and the Soviet Union. 15-25 July The United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union initial an agreement banning nuclear tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under- water. 10 October The Moscow Treaty on a partial nuclear test ban comes into force. 22 November President Kennedy is assassinated in Dallas, Texas. 1964 1 August Manlio Brosio (Italy) succeeds Dirk Stikker as Secretary General of NATO. 15 October Khrushchev is removed from office. He is replaced by Leonid Brezhnev as General Secretary of the CPSU and by Alexei Kosygin as Prime Minister. 16 October China explodes its first atomic bomb. 1966 10 March President de Gaulle announces France's intention of withdrawing from the integrated military struc- ture of the Alliance. 1967 31 March Official opening ceremony of SHAPE at Casteau near Mons, Belgium. 6-7 April First meeting of the Nuclear Planning Group in Washington. 21 April Military regime takes over power in Greece. 14 June The North Atlantic Council meeting in Luxem- bourg reviews the Middle East situation following the Six-Day War between Israel and its Arab neighbours. 16 October Official opening of new NATO Headquarters in Brussels. 13-14 December The North Atlantic Council approves the Harmel Report on the Future Tasks of the Alliance. The Defence Planning Committee adopts NATO's new strategic concept of flexible response and approves the establishment of a Standing Naval Force Atlantic (STANAVFORLANT). 1968 20-21 August Soviet, Polish, East German, Bulgarian and Hun- garian troops invade Czechoslovakia. 12 September Albania renounces its membership of the Warsaw Treaty Organisation. 13-14 November Formation of the Eurogroup. 1969 28 May Establishment of the naval on-call force in the Mediterranean (NAVOCFORMED). 8-10 December First meeting of the Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (CCMS). 1970 5 March Non-Proliferation Treaty on Nuclear Weapons comes into force. 20 March First NATO communications satellite launched from Cape Kennedy. 16 April Opening in Vienna of US-USSR negotiations on strategic arms limitations (SALT). 1971 2 February Second NATO communications satellite launched from Cape Kennedy. 1 October Joseph Luns (Netherlands) succeeds Manlio Brosio as Secretary General of NATO. 1972 26 May Signature in Moscow of interim agreement on strategic arms limitations (SALT). 3 June Quadripartite Agreement on Berlin signed by Foreign Ministers of France, United Kingdom, United States and the USSR. 21 November Opening of SALT II in Geneva. 21 December Signature in East Berlin of the ``Basic Treaty'' between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. 1973 1 January Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom join the European Economic Community (EEC). 11 May Inauguration of Standing Naval Force Channel (STANAVFORCHAN). 3-7 July Opening of Conference on Security and Cooper- ation in Europe (CSCE) in Helsinki. 6-24 October Arab-Israeli Yom Kippur War. 30 October Conference on Mutual and Balanced Force Reduc- tions (MBFR) opens in Vienna. 1974 25 April Military coup d'Etat in Portugal. 26 June NATO Heads of Government meeting in Brussels sign a Declaration on Atlantic Relations approved and published by the North Atlantic Council in Ottawa on 19 June. 23 July Konstantinos Karamanlis becomes Prime Minister of Greece following the resignation of the military government. 14 August Withdrawal of Greek forces from integrated mili- tary structure of NATO. 23-24 November President Ford and General Secretary Brezhnev, meeting in Vladivostok, agree on steps towards limitation of US-USSR strategic nuclear arms. 1975 31 July- 1 August Final phase of CSCE. The Heads of State and Government sign the Helsinki Final Act. 1976 2 February Establishment of the Independent European Pro- gramme Group. 1977 10-11 May North Atlantic Council meeting in London with participation of Heads of State and Government. Initiation of a long-term defence programme. 4 October CSCE Follow-up Meeting in Belgrade (4 October 1977 - 9 March 1978). 12 October Establishment of NPG High Level Group on theatre nuclear force modernisation. 1978 30-31 May Meeting of the North Atlantic Council with participation of Heads of State and Government in Washington. 31 October- 11 December CSCE Experts' Meeting on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, Montreux 18 November Third NATO communications satellite launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. 5-6 December Approval of Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AWACS). 1979 18 June SALT II agreement signed in Vienna by President Carter and General Secretary Brezhnev. (The agree- ment was not ratified by the United States). 4 November Seizure of the United States Embassy in Tehran and 53 hostages by Islamic revolutionaries. 12 December Special Meeting of Foreign and Defence Ministers in Brussels. ``Double-track'' decision on theatre nuclear force modernisation including the deploy- ment in Europe of US ground-launched Cruise and Pershing II systems and a parallel and comple- mentary arms control effort to obviate the need for such deployments. 27 December Soviet Union invades Afghanistan.
Nato Handbook Important Dates InformationMarch 24, 1993
1980 24 January Members of the Alliance participating in the 12 December 1979 Special Meeting establish the Special Consultative Group on arms control involv- ing theatre nuclear forces. 18 February- 3 March CSCE Forum on Scientific Cooperation, Ham- burg. 31 August Gdansk Agreements, leading to establishment and official recognition of independent Polish trade union ``Solidarity''. 12 September Turkish military leadership takes over the adminis- tration of the country. 22 September War breaks out between Iraq and Iran. 20 October Re-integration of Greek forces into the integrated military structure of the Alliance. 11 November Opening of CSCE Follow-up Meeting in Madrid. 1981 1 January Greece becomes the 10th member of the European Economic Community. 23 January Abortive attempt by rebel civil guards to over- throw Spanish caretaker government. 27 October Soviet submarine grounded in Swedish territorial waters. 18 November President Reagan announces new arms control initatives including intermediate-range nuclear force negotiations (INF) and strategic arms reduc- tion talks (START). 30 November The United States and the Soviet Union open Geneva negotiations on intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF). 10-11 December Signature of the Protocol of Accession of Spain to the North Atlantic Treaty. 13 December Imposition of martial law in Poland. 1982 11 January Special Ministerial Session of the North Atlantic Council issues a Declaration on Events in Poland. 2 April-14 June The Falklands Conflict. 30 May Spain becomes the 16th member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. 10 June Summit Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Bonn. Heads of State and Government issue the Bonn Declaration setting out the Alliance Pro- gramme for Peace in Freedom. 30 June Opening of Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) in Geneva. 1983 23 March President Reagan announces a comprehensive re- search programme aimed at eliminating the threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles (Strategic Defense Initiative). 22 July Ending of martial law in Poland. New laws rein- force Government controls. 1 September A South Korean airliner with 269 people on board is shot down by Soviet air defence off the coast of Sakhalin. 9 September Conclusion of CSCE Follow-up Meeting in Madrid. 25 October Military intervention in Grenada by United States and East Caribbean forces. 27 October The Montebello Decision. Defence Ministers meet- ing in the NATO Nuclear Planning Group in Montebello, Canada announce their decision to withdraw a further 1,400 warheads from Europe, bringing the total of such withdrawals since 1979 to 2,400. 23 November Deliveries of GLCM components to the United King- dom mark the beginning of NATO's intermediate- range nuclear force deployments (INF). 23 November Decision by the Soviet Union to discontinue the current round of negotiations in Geneva on intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF). 8 December Conclusion of the current round of US-Soviet Geneva negotiations on Strategic Arms Reductions (START) without a date being set by the Soviet side for their resumption. 8-9 December Foreign Ministers meeting in the Ministerial Ses- sion of the North Atlantic Council issue the Declar- ation of Brussels expressing their determination to seek a balanced and constructive relationship with the East and calling on the Soviet Union and other Warsaw Treaty countries to respond. 13 December Formation of a civilian government in Turkey following parliamentary elections under a new constitution. 1984 17 January Opening of the Stockholm Conference on Security and Confidence-Building Measures and Disarma- ment in Europe (CDE). 21 March- 30 April CSCE Experts' Meeting on the Peaceful Settlement of Disputes, Athens. 31 May NATO Foreign Ministers issue the Washington Statement on East-West Relations. 12 June Foreign Ministers of the seven countries of the Western European Union meeting in Paris decide to reactivate the WEU. 25 June Lord Carrington (United Kingdom) succeeds Josph Luns as Secretary General of NATO. 16-26 October CSCE Seminar on Economic, Scientific and Cul- tural Cooperation in the Mediterranean, Venice. 31 October Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi is assassi- nated and is succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi. 7 December Presentation by the Secretary General of NATO of the first Atlantic Award to Per Markussen (Den- mark), for his outstanding contribution over many years to the objectives of the Atlantic Alliance. 1985 11 March Mikhail Gorbachev becomes General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 12 March The United States and the USSR begin new arms control negotiations in Geneva, encompassing de- fence and space systems, strategic nuclear forces and intermediate-range nuclear forces. 26 April The 1955 Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, establishing the Warsaw Treaty Organisation, is extended for 20 years by leaders of the seven member states. 7 May-17 June CSCE Experts' Meeting on Human Rights, Ottawa. 7 October Palestinian guerrillas hijack an Italian cruise liner, the Achille Lauro, in the Mediterranean, taking 440 people hostage. An American citizen is murdered. 15 October- 25 November Cultural Forum in Budapest. 12 November Professor van der Beugel (Netherlands) becomes the second recipient of NATO's Atlantic Award for outstanding services to the Atlantic Alliance. 19-21 November Geneva Summit meeting between United States President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. 21 November President Reagan reports on his Geneva talks with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev at a special meet- ing of the North Atlantic Council with the partici- pation of Heads of State and Government and Foreign Ministers. 1986 12 March In a referendum organised by Prime Minister Felipe Gonzalez, Spanish voters support the contin- ued membership of Spain in the Atlantic Alliance without participation in NATO's integrated mili- tary structure. 15 April In response to terrorist attacks attributed to Libya, United States forces attack targets in Tripoli and Benghazi. 26 April Nuclear accident at the Chernobyl power station in the Soviet Union. 22 September End of Stockholm Conference on Confidence and Security Building Measures and Disarmament in Europe (CDE). Concluding document (dated 19 September) includes mandatory measures for notification, observation and on-site inspection of military manoeuvres of participating countries. 11-12 October Reykjavik Summit Meeting between United States President Reagan and Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev. 4 November The third CSCE Follow-up Conference opens in Vienna. 24 November Prof. Karl Kaiser (Federal Republic of Germany) receives the third Atlantic Award for services to the Alliance. 1987 17 February Talks open in Vienna between NATO and Warsaw Treaty countries on a mandate for negotiations on conventional forces in Europe from the Atlantic to the Urals. 5 June The Canadian Government announces its decision to redirect its commitment to the reinforcement of Europe from the Northern to the Central Region. 22 July Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announces Soviet readiness to eliminate all intermediate-range nu- clear weapons including those deployed in the Asian part of the Soviet Union in the context of a United States-Soviet INF treaty. 20 August Western European Union experts meeting in The Hague consider joint action in the Gulf to ensure freedom of navigation in the oil shipping lanes of the region. 28-30 August United States inspectors attend military manoeuv- res near Minsk, the first such inspection to take place under the provisions of the September 1986 Stockholm Document. 5-7 October Soviet inspectors attend NATO exercises in Turkey, the first such inspection to take place in an Alliance country under the provisions of the September 1986 Stockholm Document. 27 October Foreign and Defence Ministers of the seven member countries of the Western European Union adopt a ``Platform on European Security Inter- ests''. 25 November Presentation of NATO's annual Atlantic Award to Pierre Harmel (Belgium) author of the 1967 Harmel Report. 8 December US President Reagan and Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev, meeting at the beginning of their 3-day summit talks, sign the Washington INF Treaty, eliminating on a global basis land-based intermediate-range nuclear missiles. 9 December The United States and the Soviet Union reach agreement on measures allowing the monitoring of nuclear explosions at each other's test sites. 10 December At the end of their 3-day summit meeting in Washington, US President Reagan and Soviet Leader Mikhail Gorbachev pledge deep cuts in strategic arms. 11 December The North Atlantic Council marks the 20th anni- versary of the Harmel report. The Secretary of State of the United States and the Foreign Minis- ters of Belgium, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom sign bilateral agreements relating to the implemen- tation of the INF Treaty. 1988 22 January Establishment of a Joint Security Council by the Governments of the Federal Republic of Germany and of France. The two Governments also sign an agreement relating to the formation of a joint Franco-German Army Brigade. 2-3 March Summit meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels emphasises Allied unity and reasserts the common objectives and principles and the continu- ing validity of Alliance policies. A Statement on Conventional Arms Control is issued calling for significant steps to bring about progress in eliminat- ing conventional force disparities through negotia- tions on conventional stability. 15 May Beginning of Soviet troop withdrawals from Afghanistan. 31 May During a five-day Summit meeting in Moscow, President Reagan and General Secretary Gor- bachev exchange documents implementing the re- cently ratified December 1987 INF Treaty and sign bilateral agreements on nuclear testing and in other fields. 1 July Manfred Worner, former Minister of Defence of the Federal Republic of Germany, succeeds Lord Carrington as Secretary General of NATO. 20 August Entry into force of a ceasefire in the Gulf War between Iran and Iraq, in the framework of UN Security Council Resolution 598. 14 November Portugal and Spain sign the Treaty of Accession to the Western European Union. 5 December Paul Nitze, Special Adviser on Arms Control to President Reagan, receives the 1988 Atlantic Award. 7 December President Gorbachev, in the course of a major address to the UN General Assembly, announces unilateral Soviet conventional force reductions. A major earthquake in Armenia devastates several cities and causes massive loss of life. 8 December Alliance Foreign Ministers welcome Soviet reduc- tions in conventional forces and publish a state- ment outlining the Alliance's proposals for forthcoming negotiations on conventional stability and further confidence- and security-building measures. 1989 7-11 January 149 countries participate in an international Conference on Chemical Weapons in Paris. 19 January Conclusion of the Vienna CSCE Follow-up Meet- ing and adoption of a Concluding Document in- cluding mandates for new negotiations on Conven- tional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) and new negotiations on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs). 15 February The Soviet Union completes the withdrawal of military forces from Afghanistan in accordance with the schedule announced by President Gor- bachev. 6 March Foreign Ministers of CSCE states meet in Vienna to mark the opening of new negotiations on Conven- tional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) among the 23 members of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organisation and on Confidence and Security- Building Measures among all 35 CSCE participat- ing States. 27 March The first multi-candidate elections to the new USSR Congress of People's Deputies result in major set-backs for official Party candidates in many constituencies. 4 April The fortieth anniversary of the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty is marked by a special session of the North Atlantic Council and other ceremonies at NATO and in capitals. 5 April Agreements signed in Warsaw by Government and opposition negotiators on measures leading to political reforms in Poland including free elections and registration of the banned trade union move- ment Solidarity. 18 April-23 May CSCE Information Forum, London. 12 May President Bush proposes ``Open Skies'' regime to increase confidence and transparency with respect to military activities. The proposal envisages recip- rocal opening of airspace and acceptance of overflights of national territory by participating countries. 29-30 May Summit Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels attended by Heads of State and Govern- ment. Announcement by President Bush of major new initiatives for conventional force reductions in Europe. Adoption of the Alliance's Comprehensive Concept of Arms Control and Disarmament and publication of a Summit Declaration. 30 May-23 June First meeting of the CSCE Conference on the Human Dimension (CDH) in Paris. 31 May During a visit to the Federal Republic of Germany President Bush outlines proposals for promoting free elections and pluralism in Eastern Europe and dismantling the Berlin Wall. 3-4 June Chinese leaders use armed forces in Peking to suppress unarmed student-led popular demonstra- tions in favour of democracy, causing large-scale loss of life and leading to major unrest in other cities, purges and infringements of basic rights throughout China. 4 and 18 June Free elections for the Polish Senate and partial elections involving 35 per cent of seats in the Sejm result in major electoral success for Solidarity. 8-9 June Ministerial Meeting of the Defence Planning Com- mittee. Defence Ministers consider implications for defence planning of Western proposals for reduc- tion of conventional forces in Europe. 16 June Imre Nagy, leader of the 1956 Hungarian revolu- tion who was hanged in 1958, is reburied with full honours in Budapest. 19 June Re-opening of Strategic Arms Reductions Talks (START) in Geneva. 3 July Death of veteran Soviet Foreign Minister and former President Andrei Gromyko. 9 August A statement is issued by NATO's Secretary General on behalf of the Allies concerning the situation of ethnic Turks in Bulgaria, calling upon the Bulgarian government to respond positively to appeals to meet its responsibilities under the CSCE documents. 24 August Tadeusz Mazowiecki becomes Prime Minister of the first non-communist led government in Poland in 40 years. The Polish United Workers' (Commu- nist) Party retains four ministries. 10 September Hungary opens its Western border, enabling large numbers of East German refugees to leave the country for destinations in the West. 3 October Following the exodus of 6,390 East German citizens from Western embassies in Prague on 1 October, under arrangements made by the East German Government, some 20,000 East German emigrants congregate in the Prague and Warsaw embassies of the Federal Republic of Germany. 6-7 October Mikhail Gorbachev, attending 40th Anniversary Parade in East Berlin, urges reforms in the GDR. 16 October- CSCE Meeting on Environmental Protection Sofia. 8 November 18 October Erich Honecker, General Secretary of the Socialist (Communist) Unity Party since 1971, is replaced by Egon Krenz as leader of the German Demo- cratic Republic as East German citizens demon- strate for political reform and large numbers of refugees continue to leave the German Democratic Republic through Prague and Budapest. 23 October The new constitution adopted by the Hungarian Parliament on 18 October brings into being the Republic of Hungary as a ``free, democratic, inde- pendent legal state'' and opens the way for multi- party elections in 1990. 7 November Resignation of the East German Cabinet following rallies in many cities calling for free elections and the abolition of the Communist monopoly on power and calls from within the Party for major changes at the highest level. The move is followed the next day by the joint resignation of the ruling Politburo. 9-10 November The opening of the Berlin Wall. Following wide- spread demonstrations and demand for political reform, the government of the German Democratic Republic announces the lifting of travel restrictions to the West and sets up new crossing points. 14 November East German Parliament elects reformist Hans Modrow as Prime Minister. 16 November Removal of Todor Zhivkov, Bulgarian Communist Party leader since 1954, followed by further sweep- ing changes in the party leadership. 17 November Violent dispersal of Prague student demonstrations triggers popular movement against the govern- ment. Emergence of Civic Forum, led by Vaclav Havel. 20 November Mass demonstrations in Leipzig voice popular call for German unification. 24 November Resignation of the Czechoslovak Party leadership. Karel Urbanek becomes General Secretary and invites dialogue with Civic Forum. 3 December Resignation of new East German Politburo and Central Committee amid revelations of Communist leadership's misrule and corruption. 4 December NATO Summit Meeting in Brussels. US President George Bush briefs NATO leaders on his talks with Soviet President Gorbachev at the US-Soviet Summit Meeting in Malta on 2-3 December, mark- ing the beginning of a new era of cooperation between their countries. The Summit Meeting of leaders of the Warsaw Treaty Organisation in Moscow publishes a joint statement denouncing the 1968 invasion of Czecho- slovakia by Warsaw Pact forces and repudiates the Brezhnev Doctrine of limited sovereignty. 7 December Resignation of President Gustav Husak and forma- tion of coalition government in Czechoslovakia. NATO's Atlantic Award for 1989 is bestowed on Sir Michael Howard, President and co- founder of the International Institute for Strategic Studies. 11 December Popular demonstrations in Bulgaria lead to the promise of free elections and renunciation of the leading role of the Communist Party. 13 December Vaclav Havel is elected President of Czecho- slovakia. 14-15 December Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels. Foreign Ministers review accelerating political change in Central and Eastern Europe. 19 December Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze visits NATO Headquarters for talks with NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner and Perma- nent Representatives of NATO countries - the first such visit by a Minister of a Central or Eastern European government. 20 December Troops and police open fire on thousands of anti- government protesters in the Romanian town of Timisoara. 22 December Fall of Ceausescu regime. Nicolai Ceausescu is arrested by the Romanian armed forces and ex- ecuted on 25 December. The National Salvation Front headed by Ion Iliescu takes control and promises free elections. 29 December The Polish Parliament abolishes the leading role of the Communist Party and restores the country's name as the Republic of Poland. 1990 15 January Bulgarian government abolishes the Communist Party's 44-year monopoly on political power. 16 January- 5 February 35-nation Seminar on Military Doctrines in Vienna in the framework of the CSCE. 6 February In an unprecedented speech to the Plenary Session of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Mr. Gor- bachev addresses major aspects of his reform pro- gramme including the abandonment of the leading role of the Communist Party and the introduction of political pluralism. 12-14 February Foreign Ministers of NATO and Warsaw Treaty Organisation countries, with observers from other CSCE states, meet in Ottawa at the opening of the ``Open Skies'' Conference. 13 February On the margins of the ``Open Skies'' Conference in Ottawa agreement is reached by the Foreign Minis- ters concerned to hold discussions on external aspects of the establishment of German unity in a ``Two Plus Four'' framework. NATO and Warsaw Treaty Organisation Foreign Ministers also agree on steps to enable a CFE agree- ment to be concluded in 1990. 3 March Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier visits NATO Headquarters for discussions with NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner. 8 March At a meeting attended by Chancellor Helmut Kohl, consultations take place in the North Atlantic Council on the position of the Government of the Federal Republic on developments in Germany and related security matters. 11 March The Lithuanian Parliament votes to break away from the Soviet Union and regain its independ- ence. 17 March Warsaw Treaty Organisation Foreign Ministers meeting in Prague support the continuation in being of both NATO and the Warsaw Pact. 18 March In their first free elections in 40 years the citizens of the German Democratic Republic give an over- whelming majority to the conservative ``Alliance for Germany'', marking a further key step in the process of the unification of Germany. 19 March-11 April CSCE Conference on Economic Cooperation in Europe, Bonn. 21 March Krzystof Skubiszewski, Foreign Minister of Poland, visits NATO Headquarters for discussions with Secretary General Manfred Worner and Per- manent Representatives of NATO countries. 26 March The Czechoslovak Government orders border in- stallations along its frontiers with Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany to be dismantled. 27 March Formal entry of Portugal and Spain to the WEU on completion of the ratification process. 7 April Elections in Hungary result in a decisive victory for the Hungarian Democratic Forum (centre-right party). 12 April The coalition government of the German Demo- cratic Republic pronounces itself in favour of unifi- cation with the Federal Republic of Germany on the basis of Article 23 of the Basic Law and the membership of the unified country in the North Atlantic Alliance. 3 May President Bush announces the cancellation of mod- ernisation programmes for nuclear artillery shells deployed in Europe and for a ``follow-on'' to the LANCE short-range nuclear missile. He calls for negotiations on US and Soviet short-range nuclear missiles to begin shortly after a CFE treaty is signed. 7 May The Latvian Parliament declares the independence of the Baltic Republic. 8 May The Estonian Parliament modifies the Republic's name and constitution and restores its pre-war flag and national anthem. 9-10 May NATO Defence Ministers, meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group in Kananaskis, Canada, discuss the implications of political changes taking place in Europe for NATO's security policy. 20 May Following elections in Romania, former Commu- nist Government member Ion Iliescu is elected President despite opposition accusations of elec- toral irregularities. The National Salvation Front obtains a majority in Parliament. 22-23 May NATO Defence Ministers, meeting in the Defence Planning Committee, assess the implications for NATO security policy of the changes taking place in Europe and initiate a review of NATO's military strategy. Hungary's new Premier Josef Antall announces his government's intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Treaty Organisation following negotia- tions. 30 May Boris Yeltsin is elected President of the Russian Republic in the third round of elections. 30 May-2 June US-Soviet Summit Meeting in Washington. 5 June Foreign Ministers of the 35 countries participating in the second CSCE Conference on the Human Dimension (CHD2) in Copenhagen agree to accord observer status to Albania. 7-8 June At the Ministerial Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at Turnberry in Scotland, Alliance Foreign Ministers publish a ``Message from Turnberry'' in which they express their determination to seize the historic opportunities resulting from the profound changes in Europe and extend to the Soviet Union and all other European countries the hand of friendship and cooperation. 8 June Parliamentary elections in Czechoslovakia. Civic Forum and allied parties win a majority in the Federal Assembly. 10 and 17 June Elections in Bulgaria result in a parliamentary majority for the Bulgarian Socialist Party. 18 June NATO announces the award of 70 research fellowships for 1990/91 including 55 fellowships for research on democratic institutions awarded for the first time to citizens of both NATO and Central and Eastern European countries. 28 June At the Copenhagen CSCE Conference on the Human Dimension Eastern European countries (excluding Albania, which joined the CSCE process in June 1991) commit themselves to multi- party parliamentary democracy and to the rule of law. 29 June Geza Jeszensky, Foreign Minister of Hungary, is received at NATO Headquarters by Secretary General Manfred Worner. 2 July Monetary union is established between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. 3 July Taro Nakayama, Foreign Minister of Japan, is received by Secretary General Manfred Worner at NATO Headquarters. 6 July NATO Heads of State and Government meeting in London publish the ``London Declaration'' on a Transformed North Atlantic Alliance. The declar- ation outlines proposals for developing cooper- ation with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe across a wide spectrum of political and military activity, including the establishment of regular diplomatic liaison between those countries and NATO. 10 July The Foreign Minister of the German Democratic Republic, Markus Meckel, visits NATO. 13-17 July NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Moscow at the invitation of Foreign Minister Sche- vardnadze for talks with the Soviet leadership fol- lowing publication of the London Declaration. 16 July Chancellor Kohl and President Gorbachev agree on measures enabling Germany to regain full sover- eignty and to exercise its right to remain a full member of the North Atlantic Alliance. 17 July Conclusion of the ``Two Plus Four'' Conference in Paris on the unification of Germany. 18 July Hungarian Prime Minister Jozsef Antall visits NATO Headquarters. 2 August Iraqi troops invade Kuwait following a dispute between the two countries on exploitation of oil rights in the Gulf. 6 August The UN Security Council agrees unanimously on wide-ranging sanctions against Iraq and demands Iraqi withdrawal from the occupied territory of Kuwait. 8 August The UN Security Council declares the Iraqi announcement of its de facto annexation of Kuwait nul and void. 10 August Special Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the level of Foreign Ministers for consultations and exchange of information on developments in the Gulf. 22 August The legislature of the German Democratic Repub- lic votes in favour of the unification of the GDR with the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 Octo- ber 1990 and agrees to hold elections in the unified country on 2 December 1990. 4 September The nine member countries of the Western Euro- pean Union agree on guidelines for the coordina- tion of their naval operations in the Gulf region in order to reinforce the international embargo against Iraq. A number of WEU and other coun- tries send forces to the area. 5-8 September NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner visits the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic for discus- sions with the President, Prime Minister and Presi- dent of the Parliament. 7 September Consultations continue in the North Atlantic Council on political, military and economic devel- opments in the Gulf in the framework of the harmonisation of allied policies and the commit- ment of the Allies to work for the application of United Nations resolutions in relation to the Gulf crisis. 10 September The United States Secretary of State James Baker briefs a special meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Ministerial session on the outcome of the US-Soviet summit meeting on the Gulf crisis. 12 September In a statement issued on the occasion of the signing of the ``Two Plus Four Treaty'' in Moscow, the Alliance welcomes this historic agreement which paves the way for the unification of Germany and its return to full sovereignty. 13-15 September NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner on his first visit to Poland addresses the Sejm on the historic opportunities for creating a durable order of peace and prosperity in Europe based on cooper- ation and friendship. 14 September Initiation of Allied consultations in NATO's Special Consultative Group on future negotiations on short-range nuclear forces as called for in the London Declaration. In a statement condemning the forced entry by Iraqi soldiers into the residences of NATO embas- sies in Kuwait, the Alliance calls upon Iraq to free those seized and to refrain from further aggressive acts. 24 September- 19 October CSCE Meeting on the Mediterranean, Palma de Mallorca. 1-2 October CSCE Conference of Foreign Ministers in New York passes resolution condemning Iraqi aggession against Kuwait. 3 October On the day of German unification the North Atlantic Council marks the occasion by a special meeting and welcomes the united country as a full member of the Alliance. 15 October Mikhail Gorbachev is awarded the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize. 23 October Mr. Petre Roman, Prime Minister of Romania, is received at NATO Headquarters by Secretary General Manfred Worner. 25-26 October Visit to NATO by First Deputy Minister of Defence and Chief of the Soviet General Staff, General M.A. Moiseyev. 26 October Dr. Lajos Fur, Defence Minister of the Republic of Hungary, visits NATO. 15 November Mr. Luben Gotsev, Foreign Minister of Hungary, is received at NATO Headquarters by Secretary General Manfred Worner. 17 November CSCE negotiators adopt the ``Vienna Document'' on Confidence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs). 19 November In the framework of the CSCE Summit Meeting in Paris, the 22 member states of NATO and the Warsaw Treaty Organisation sign a major Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe and publish a Joint Declaration on non-aggression. 21 November CSCE Heads of State and Government publish the Charter of Paris for a New Europe and endorse the adoption of the Vienna Document on Confi- dence- and Security-Building Measures (CSBMs). 22-25 November NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Hungary. 26-28 November The North Atlantic Assembly meeting in London accords associate delegate status to parliamen- tarians from the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czecho- slovakia, Hungary and Poland. 6-7 December Ministerial meeting of the Defence Planning Com- mittee and the Nuclear Planning Group in Brus- sels. Defence Ministers support UN Resolution 678 demanding that Iraqi forces withdraw from Kuwait by January 1991. They review progress in developing a new strategic concept for NATO and other steps being taken to adapt NATO forces to the new strategic environment in Europe. 10 December Lech Walesa is elected President of Poland. 11 December Albania's Communist Party anounces the legalisa- tion of political opposition parties after 45 years of one-party dictatorship. 13 December Romanian Secretary of State for Defence, General Vasile Ionel visits NATO. 15 December At a Summit Meeting in Rome EC Leaders open Intergovernmental Conferences on Economic and Monetary Union and Political Union. 17-18 December Ministerial meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels. Foreign Ministers review progress made since the July Summit Meeting in fulfilling the objectives of the London Declaration and issue a statement on the Gulf Crisis. 20 December Soviet Foreign Minister Edouard Schevardnadze resigns, warning of the risks of renewed dictator- ship in the Soviet Union. 1991 2 January NATO deploys aircraft of the ACE Mobile Force (AMF) to south east Turkey in an operational role. 8 January Soviet troops are deployed around the Lithuanian capital to enforce mandatory conscription. 9 January At a Geneva meeting between the US and Iraqi Foreign ministers, Iraq maintains its refusal to withdraw its forces from Kuwait. 11 January NATO issues a statement urging Soviet authorities to refrain from using force and intimidation in the Baltic Republics. 15 January - 8 February CSCE Experts' Meeting on Peaceful Settlement of Disputes in Valetta proposes establishment of Dis- pute Settlement Mechanism. 17 January Coalition forces launch air attacks against Iraq at the beginning of the Gulf War, following Iraq's refusal to withdraw from Kuwait in accordance with UN Security Council Resolutions. 11 February Eighty-five per cent of those voting in a Lithuanian plebiscite favour moves towards independence. 18 February WEU Secretary General Wim van Eekelen visits NATO for discussions with NATO Secretary Gen- eral Manfred Worner in the framework of on- going consultations on the development of the European Security Identity and cooperation be- tween NATO and the WEU. 19 February An eleventh-hour Soviet peace plan for averting the Gulf War falls short of Allied demands for an unconditional withdrawal of Iraqi forces. 24 February Coalition forces begin ground offensive into Kuwait. 25 February Representatives of the six countries of the Warsaw Pact convene in Budapest to announce the dissolu- tion of its military structure. The Warsaw Pact Committee of Defence Ministers, its Joint Com- mand, and its Military, Scientific and Technical Council are disbanded. 27 February Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jiri Dienstbier visits NATO. 28 February Coalition forces liberate Kuwait. US President George Bush suspends allied coalition combat op- erations. Iraq accepts unconditionally all 12 UN resolutions relating to the withdrawal of its forces from Kuwait. 3 March In referendums held in Estonia and Latvia, votes favour independence by 77 per cent and 73 per cent, respectively. 4 March The Soviet legislature ratifies the Treaty permit- ting German unification, formally ending the authority of the quadripartite arrangements concerning Germany introduced after World War II. 6 March NATO's Allied Mobile Force is withdrawn from Turkey following the end of the Gulf War. 13 and 26 March Completion of United States withdrawal of intermediate-range nuclear forces (Pershing 2 and Cruise missiles) from Europe in accordance with the INF Treaty. 21 March Visit to NATO by the President of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, Vaclav Havel. President Havel addresses the North Atlantic Council. 31 March Formal dissolution of the military structures of the Warsaw Pact. 15 April Inauguration in London of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), estab- lished to assist Eastern European countries and the Soviet Union in developing democracy and a market economy. 23-24 April Visit by the Chairman of NATO's Military Commit- tee, General Vigleik Eide, to the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic. 25-26 April Conference on The Future of European Security in Prague sponsored jointly by the Foreign Minis- ter of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic and the Secretary General of NATO. 29 April NATO's annual Atlantic Award is presented posthumously to Senator Giovanni Malagodi of Italy. 30 April Visit to NATO Headquarters by Bulgarian Prime Minister, Dimitar Popov and Colonel General Mutafchiev, Minister of Defence. 7 May The Yugoslav Defence Minister declares that his country is in a state of civil war. 12 May Elimination by the Soviet Union of remaining SS20 missiles in accordance with the INF Treaty. 21 May The US House of Representatives calls for a reduc- tion of US troop strength in Europe from 250,000 to 100,000 by 1995. The Supreme Soviet passes a bill liberalising foreign travel and emigration. 23 May Visit to NATO by Poland's Defence Minister, Piotr Kolodziejczyk. 28-29 May Ministerial Meetings of NATO's Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group. Minis- ters agree inter alia on the basis of a new NATO force structure. 28 May-7 June CSCE Cultural Heritage Symposium, Cracow. 1 June US and Soviet officials report resolution of out- standing differences on the CFE Treaty. 6-7 June NATO Foreign Ministers meeting in Copenhagen, issue Statements on Partnership with the Countries of Central and Eastern Europe, NATO's Core Security Functions in the New Europe, and the Resolution of Problems Concerning the CFE Treaty. 12-14 June NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner pays an official visit to the Republic of Bulgaria. 19 June Albania becomes 35th CSCE participating State. 19-20 June Meeting of CSCE Council, Berlin. Foreign Ministers create a CSCE Emergency Mechanism allowing for meetings of Senior Officials to be called at short notice subject to agreement by 13 States, and en- dorse the Valetta Report on the Peaceful Settle- ment for Disputes. 20 June German legislators vote to reinstate Berlin as the country's official capital. 25 June Parliaments of Slovenia and Croatia proclaim inde- pendence. 28 June Dissolution of COMECON. 1 July The Warsaw pact is officially disbanded in accord- ance with a protocol calling for a ``transition to all-European structures.'' 1-19 July CSCE Experts' Meeting on National Minorities, Geneva. 3 July Polish President Lech Walesa visits NATO. 4-5 July NATO's Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Romania. 30 July Russian President Boris Yeltsin signs a treaty with Lithuania recognising its independence. 30-31 July US and Soviet Presidents proclaim their two-day summit as opening a new era in bilateral relations and sign a START Treaty reducing strategic nuclear weapons. 19 August Soviet President Gorbachev is removed from office in a coup and replaced by an ``emergency commit- tee''. Meeting in emergency session NATO Council warns the Soviet Union of ``serious consequences'' if it abandons reform. Western aid programmes are suspended. Russian President Boris Yeltsin calls for a gen- eral strike while loyalist tanks flying Russian flags position themselves near the Russian parliament building. 21 August Ministerial meeting of the North Atlantic Council. Foreign Ministers review the political situation in the Soviet Union and publish a statement condemn- ing the unconstitutional removal of President Gor- bachev and calling for the restoration of demo- cratic reform. President Gorbachev returns to Moscow as the 19 August coup collapses and its leaders are arrested. Western leaders praise President Yeltsin's role in resisting the coup and lift a freeze on aid to the Soviet Union. Romanian Foreign Minister Adrian Nastase visits NATO. 25 August The Soviet Union announces a wholesale purge of the Military High Command. President Gorbachev proposes that the Communist Party be disbanded and resigns as its General Secretary. 26 August President Gorbachev indicates that the demands of secession-minded republics for independence can no longer be resisted. EC countries agree to establish diplomatic ties with the three Baltic states. 28 August President Gorbachev appoints Boris Pankin, former Ambassador to Czechoslovakia, as Foreign Minister, strips the KGB of its troops and orders an investigation of its activities. 29 August Soviet legislators vote to suspend all activities of the Communist Party. 5 September The Soviet Congress of Peoples Deputies, before disbanding, agrees to hand over key powers to the Repubics. 10 September- 4 October Third CSCE Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension, in Moscow. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania become participating CSCE States. 17 September Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are admitted to the UN. 27 September US President Bush announces sweeping cuts in US nuclear weapons and calls upon the Soviet Union to do likewise. The US cuts include the destruction of all US ground-launched tactical nuclear missiles and the removal of nuclear cruise missiles from submarines and warships. 6 October Meeting in Cracow, the Foreign Ministers of Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia state their wish for their countries to be included in NATO activities. President Gorbachev announces the abolition of Soviet short-range nuclear weapons and the re- moval of all tactical nuclear weapons from ships, submarines and land-based naval aircraft. 17 October NATO Defence Ministers meeting in Taormina, Italy, announce reductions in the current NATO stockpile of sub-strategic nuclear weapons in Europe by approximately 80 per cent. 21 October Visit to NATO by Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Deryabin. 24-25 October Seminar on Civil/Military Coordination of Air Traffic Management at NATO with participation from NATO and Central and Eastern European countries. 28 October Hungarian Prime Minister Joszef Antall visits NATO. 30 October The first Peace Conference on the Middle East opens in Madrid under the joint chairmanship of the United States and the Soviet Union. 4-15 November CSCE Experts' Seminar on Democratic Institu- tions, Oslo. 7-8 November Summit Meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Rome. Heads of State and Government publish the Alliance's new Strategic Concept and issue the Rome Declaration on Peace and Cooperation. 11 November NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner receives Polish Foreign Minister Krzystof Skubiszewski at NATO. 12 November Estonian Foreign Minister Lennart Meri is re- ceived at NATO. Bulgarian Foreign Minister Stoyan Ganev visits NATO. 14 November Bulgarian President Zhelev visits NATO. 25 November Romanian Minister of National Defence Lt. Gen- eral Nicolae Spiroiu is received at NATO. 1 December In a referendum 90 per cent of the voters in Ukraine opt for independence from the Soviet Union. 8 December Representatives of the three former Soviet Repub- lics of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine meet in Minsk and agree to set up a Commonwealth of Independ- ent States to replace the Soviet Union. 9-10 December At the Maastricht European Council, Heads of State and Government of the EC adopt treaties (subject to ratification) on Economic and Mon- etary Union and Political Union. WEU Member States also meeting in Maas- tricht, invite members of the European Union to accede to the WEU or to become observers, and other European members of NATO to become associate members of the WEU. 12-13 December Ministerial meeting of the Defence Planning Com- mittee in Brussels. Defence Ministers review major changes in force structures called for in the Alli- ance's new Strategic Concept, including substantial reductions in troops and equipment. 13 December First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia, Gennadij Burbulis, visits NATO for discussions with Sec- retary General Manfred Worner on the situation in the Soviet Union following the foundation of the Commonwealth of Independent States by Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. 17 December During talks in Moscow President Yeltsin and President Gorbachev agree that the transition to the Commonwealth of Independent States would take place at the end of December 1991. 19 December Ministerial meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Brussels. Foreign Ministers condemn the vio- lence in Yugoslavia and pursue initiatives taken at the Rome Summit Meeting in November, inter alia on NATO assistance in providing humanitarian aid to the Soviet Union. 20 December Inaugural meeting of the North Atlantic Cooper- ation Council attended by Foreign Ministers and Representatives of 16 NATO countries and 9 Cen- tral and Eastern European countries. 21 December Eleven of the constituent republics of the former Soviet Union meet in Alma Ata and sign agree- ments creating a new Commonwealth of Independ- ent States, marking the effective end of the USSR. 25 December President Gorbachev announces his resignation as Soviet President and signs a Decree relinquishing his function as Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Soviet Forces. 1992 1 January Boutros Boutros- Ghali of Egypt becomes Secretary General of the United Nations on retirement of Javier Perez de Cuellar of Peru. 6 January Georgian rebels overthrow the Government of Zviad Gamsakhurdia. 7-8 January NATO participates in arrangements for airlifting EC humanitarian assistance to Moscow and St Petersburg in aircraft provided by the Canadian and German governments. 8-10 January Meeting of CSCE Senior Officials, Prague. 10 January At the first meeting of an informal High Level Working Group established by the North Atlantic Cooperation Council to discuss ratification and implementation of the CFE Treaty, agreement is reached on a phased approach for bringing the CFE Treaty into force. 22-23 January A 47-nation international coordinating conference in Washington on assistance to the former Soviet Union, sponsored by the United States, is attended by NATO's Secretary General Manfred Worner and representatives of other international organisa- tions. 28 January In his State of the Union Address, US President Bush proposes major new arms control and dis- armament initiatives. 30 January The first Summit Meeting of the 15 nation UN Security Council is attended by President Boris Yeltsin, President of the Russian Federation. 30-31 January Meeting of CSCE Council of Foreign Ministers in Prague recognises the Russian Federation as the continuation of the legal personality of the former Soviet Union and admits 10 former Soviet Repub- lics as CSCE participating states. 19 February Prime Minister of Azerbaijan Gasanov visits NATO. 21 February Manfred Worner, Secretary General of NATO, visits Romania and opens a new Euro-Atlantic Centre in Bucharest. 22-23 February Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Ukraine. 24-25 February Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Russia. 26 February The Canadian Government informs the Alliance of its decision to cancel plans to maintain 1,100 Canadian forces in Europe after 1994, but con- firms its intention to fulfil other commitments to the Alliance and to its Integrated Military Struc- ture. The North Atlantic Council, in a Statement on Yugoslavia, appeals to all parties to respect cease- fire arrangements in order to allow the deployment of a UN peace-keeping force. 27 February- 24 March Mission of experts sponsored by the Medical Work- ing Group of the Washington Coordinating Con- ference on Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States visits 10 cities on board a NATO Boeing 707 to assess medical needs. 5 March Foreign Ministers of Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russia and Sweden meeting in Copenhagen, an- nounce the formation of the Council of Baltic Sea States. 10 March Extraordinary Meeting of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Foreign Ministers and Representatives of the NACC countries publish a Work Plan for Dialogue, Partnership and Cooper- ation. 11 March President of the Italian Republic Francesco Cossiga visits NATO. 11-12 March Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Poland and opens a Seminar on ``Security in Central Europe''. 13-16 March NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner visits the Baltic States at the invitation of the Govern- ments of Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania. 24 March Opening of Fourth CSCE Follow-Up Meeting in Helsinki. Croatia, Georgia and Slovenia become CSCE participating States. Signature of Open Skies agreement permitting overflights of national territory on a reciprocal basis. 1 April NATO Defence Ministers meet with Cooperation Partners and identify areas for further cooperation in defence-related matters. 8-10 April NATO Economics Colloquium on External Econ- omic Relations of the Central and Eastern Euro- pean countries. 10 April First Meeting of the NATO Military Committee in Cooperation Session with Chiefs of Defence and Chiefs of General Staff of Central and Eastern European States. 29 April Appointment of US General John M. Shalikashvili to succeed General John R. Galvin as Supreme Allied Commander, Europe. 30 April NATO's Naval On-Call Force for the Mediterranean is replaced by a Standing Naval Force Mediter- ranean (STANAVFORMED). 4 May Visit to NATO by Japanese Minister of State for Defence, Mr. Sohei Miyashita. 7 May Meeting of Russian Secretary of State Gennady Burbulis with Acting Secretary General of NATO Amedeo de Franchis at NATO Headquarters. 11 May Visit of the Foreign Ministers of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to NATO Headquarters. 11-12 May CEAC Seminar with cooperation partners at NATO Headquarters on civil/military coordina- tion of air traffic management. 15 May Agreements signed at the fifth Summit Meeting of the leaders of the Commonwealth of Independ- ent States in Tashkent include the apportionment of rights and obligations between the 8 former Soviet states concerned with respect to the CFE Treaty. 20-22 May NATO Defence Conversion Seminar with cooper- ation partners. 21 May First formal meeting of the North Atlantic Council with the Council of the Western European Union at NATO Headquarters. 26-27 May Ministerial Meetings of NATO's Defence Planning Committee and Nuclear Planning Group. Defence Ministers discuss NATO support for CSCE peace- keeping activities. 2 June In a national referendum Danish voters reject the Maastricht Treaties on political and monetary union by 50.7 to 49.3 per cent. 4 June NATO Foreign Ministers, meeting in Ministerial Session in Oslo, announce their readiness to sup- port conditionally peace-keeping activities under the responsibility of the CSCE on a case-by-case basis. Foreign Ministers also issue statements on the crisis in the territory of the former Yugosla- via and on the crisis centered on Nagorno- Karabakh. 5 June Foreign Ministers and Representatives of the coun- tries participating in the NACC, meeting in Oslo, consult on regional conflicts and other major secu- rity issues. Georgia and Albania are welcomed as members of the NACC. Finland attends as ob- server. The Final Document issued at the conclusion of an Extraordinary Conference held in Oslo in con- junction with these meetings formally establishes the obligations under the CFE Treaty of the 8 countries of the former Soviet Union with territory in the area of application of the Treaty. 11-12 June Seminar with cooperation partners conducted by NATO's Verification Coordinating Committee on implementation of the CFE Treaty. 16 June Agreement is reached by US President Bush and Russian President Yeltsin to cut nuclear warheads on strategic missiles significantly beyond the limits of the START Treaty. 1-3 July High Level Seminar on Defence Policy and Man- agement at NATO Headquarters, attended by officials from 30 allied and cooperation partner countries. 2 July The United States notifies its Allies of the complet- ion of the withdrawal from Europe of land-based nuclear artillery shells, LANCE missile warheads and nuclear depth bombs, in accordance with the initiative announced on 27 September 1991, as well as the removal of all tactical nuclear weapons from US surface ships and attack submarines. 8 July Visit to NATO by Mr. Leonid Kravchuk, President of Ukraine. 10 July At the conclusion of the Helsinki CSCE Follow-Up Conference at Summit Level, leaders of the 51 participating nations approve a Final Document (``The Challenges of Change'') addressing, inter alia, support for CSCE peace-keeping activities by NATO and other international organisations. The North Atlantic Council in Ministerial Ses- sion in Helsinki agrees on a NATO maritime opera- tion in the Adriatic in coordination and cooper- ation with the operation decided by the WEU, to monitor compliance with UN sanctions imposed on Serbia and Montenegro by Security Council Resolutions 713 and 757. 16 July WEU member countries meet in Rome with repre- sentatives of Denmark, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, and Turkey, to discuss steps towards enlargement. 16-18 July Official visit to Hungary by the Secretary General of NATO Mr. Manfred Worner. 17 July The CFE Treaty, signed on 19 November 1990, enters into force provisionally, allowing verifica- tion procedures to be implemented. 28 July Signing in Naples of NATO-Spanish coordination agreement on air defence. 26-28 August London Conference on Yugoslavia. 2 September The North Atlantic Council agrees on measures to make available Alliance resources in support of UN, CSCE and EC efforts to bring about peace in the former Yugoslavia, including the provision of resources for the protection of humanitarian relief and support for UN monitoring of heavy weapons. 3 September An Italian relief plane is shot down west of Sarajevo in Bosnia-Hercegovina. 8 September Czechoslovak Foreign Minister Jozef Moravcik visits NATO. 12-13 September UN begins monitoring of heavy weapons in Bosnia-Hercegovina. NATO Allies express readi- ness to support the UN in this endeavour. 20 September In a national referendem French voters approve the Maastricht Treaty on European Political and Monetary Union with 50.82 per cent for the Treaty and 49.18 per cent against. 22 September The CSCE Forum for Security Cooperation (FSC), established at the Helsinki Summit in July 1992, is inaugurated in Vienna. UN General Assembly votes to exclude Serbia and Montenegro and rules that Belgrade must make an application to be admitted to the United Nations. 23 September Visit to NATO by Lithuanian President, Vytautas Landsbergis. 29 September The Swedish Foreign Minister, Margaretha af Ugglas, is received at NATO by Secretary General Manfred Worner. Foreign Minister of Argentina, Guido di Tella, visits NATO for discussions with Secretary Gen- eral Manfred Worner. 1 October US Senate ratifies START Treaty cutting US and Russian nuclear forces by one-third. 2 October NATO's new Allied Command Europe (ACE) Rapid Reaction Corps (ARRC) is inaugurated at Bielefeld, Germany, by General Shalikashvili (SACEUR). 7 October Visit to NATO by Poland's Prime Minister, Mrs. Hanna Suchocka. 14 October WEU Permanent Council meets at Ambassadorial level with eight Central and Eastern European countries. The North Atlantic Council authorises the use of a NATO airborne early warning force (AWACS) to monitor the UN-mandated ``no-fly'' zone in effect over Bosnia-Hercegovina. 20-21 October NATO Ministers of Defence meeting in the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) at Gleneagles, Scotland, focus on the implications of the Alliance's role in peacekeeping activities for NATO's collective de- fence planning. New political guidelines providing for reduced reliance on nuclear weapons are also adopted. 28 October Finnish President Mauno Koivisto meets with NATO Secretary General Manfred Worner in Brussels. 1-4 November Secretary General Manfred Worner visits Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. 3 November Governor Bill Clinton, the Democratic candidate, wins US Presidential election. 9 November CFE Treaty officially enters into force after rati- fication by all 29 signatory states.