A commander's criminal responsibility can arise in two ways: either directly, under Article 7(1), where he has "planned, instigated, ordered, committed or otherwise aided and abetted in the planning, preparation or execution of a crime referred to in articles 2 to 5"; or indirectly, under Article 7(3), where a commander can be held responsible for the acts of his subordinate "if he knew or had reason to know that the subordinate was about to commit such acts or had done so and ...failed to take the necessary and reasonable measures to prevent such acts or to punish the perpetrators thereof."